This book presents the important facts about the synthesis and biological studies of macrocyclic transition metal complexes. A detailed synthetic discussion of the reaction steps in each mechanism and their relationship with transition metal complexes has been considered. Macrocyclic ligands and their transition metal complexes depends upon the nature of reactants and the corresponding metal ion. The macrocyclic ligand are a growing class of compounds with varying chemistry a wide range of different molecular topologies and set of donor atoms. Aza type ligands appear as very promising to be used as antifertile, antibacterial, antifungal and other biological properties. Macrocyclic metal complexes play a central role in the construction of molecular materials, which display magnetic properties and find applications in material and supramolecular chemistry and biochemistry. It is believed that the present book will provide a succinct and clear introduction to synthesis, characterization and biological studies macrocyclic ligands with transition metal complexes that meets the needs of researchers at a variety of levels in several disciplines.
Schiff bases occupy a pride place both in organic and inorganic chemistry, as they have wide applications in many biological aspects. Metal complexes of Schiff bases have occupied a central role in the development of coordination chemistry. Schiff base transition metal complexes are one of the most adaptable and thoroughly studied systems. Isoxazoles are biologically active and have considerable medicinal value. A wide range of biological activities of Isoxazole derivatives include pharmacological properties such as hypoglycemic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer and also agrochemical properties like herbicidal, soil fungicidal activity and have applications as pesticides and insecticides. Isoxazole and its derivatives were found to be physiologically active and also found applications in pharmaceuticals because of their resemblance with pyrazole. In view of the above, it was thought worthwhile to study the synthesis, characterization, formation constants and antimicrobial activity of metal complexes of isoxazole Schiff bases
Metal complexes have a great influence in many areas such as bio-inorganic chemistry, medicinal chemistry and coordination chemistry etc. Coordination compounds have played prime role in catalytic processes and biological systems. Among the organic compounds, Schiff bases attract the attention of researchers because of their synthetic flexibility and wide applicability in biological sciences. The Schiff bases derived from o-hydroxyaldehydes and aminothiazole possess strong ability to form complexes with transition metals and rare earths as well. Thiazoles are well known as biological important compounds and they exhibits wide spectrum of biological (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antitumor) activities. Microwave (MW) mediated synthesis of thiazoles and Schiff bases deserve proper attention of researchers in the fields of green chemistry on the ground of reduction in reaction time and saving in energy.Conventional method of synthesis of aminothiazole requires 12 hours heating on water bath whereas microwave mediated synthesis completes within a couple of minutes. Microwave mediated synthesis of Schiff bases requires 20 to 30 seconds for completion.
In this work, by the reaction of four different chloroglyoximes with 4’-Amminobenzo[15-Crown-5] in absolute ethanol, eight of new macrocylic glyoxime ether compounds and their Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized. For this, firstly chlorophenylglyoxime, p-tolylchloroglyoxime, p-chlorophenyl chloroglyoxime and 4’-biphenylchloroglyoxime were synthesized according to previously reported literatures. Then novel glyoxime derivatives with macrocyclic glyoxime ethers by the reactions between these compounds with 4’-amminobenzo[15-crown-5] were obtained. The complexes of these ligands with metal chlorid salts have been formed. Finally, the UV-VIS, IR, AAS and 1H NMR spectroscopic properties of these compounds were investigated and clarified by the help of the results of elemental analyses and the spectroscopic methods. The content of this book is based on an experimental study for my Ph.D thesis submitted to Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey in 2002.
This book deals with some modern methods used in the synthesis and characterization of transition metal complexes. It is written primarily to stimulate the interest of students in metallo-organic chemistry and spectroscopy as well. The book is contained much useful spectral data in the form of tables and spectra. It contains a number of electronic, IR and EPR spectra, so the reader who is not familiar with these techniques can see how the spectra actually appear. It begins with a general introduction of applications of transition metal complexes in different fields. In subsequent chapters the detailed study regarding the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of bivalent transition metal ions [Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] complexes derived from 2-methylcyclohexanone semicarbazone and thiosemicarbazone using modern techniques like elemental analysis, magnetic moments and conductance measurements and spectroscopic (Electronic,IR, EPR ) studies is discussed. The geometry of synthesized complexes is emphasized. The book is intended to be useful to new metallo-organic researchers.
This work describes the physico-chemical studies of metal complexes with N and S donor ligands. Emphasis has been given to the synthesis and characterization of polyazamacrocycles and dithiocarbamato complexes of transition metal ions and Sn(IV). They have been characterized by FT-IR, NMR (1H, 13C and 119Sn), mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The synthesis of 14-membered hexaaza macrocyclic complexes of the type [CuL]X2, [CuL1]X2, [CuL(N3)(ClO4).3/2O]n, [CuL(N3)2] and [CuL1(N3)(ClO4)]n was reported. The effect of anions on the gross geometry and chemical properties of the Cu(II) ion have been studied. The crystal structure of [Ni(L)][CoCl4] clearly establishes the cationic-anionic interaction. Rare C?H---Ni anagostic interactions, generally exhibited by d8 complexes also observed. The interaction of potassium bis(2,2-dithiopiperazinato-2,2-diaminodiethylamine (K2L) with R2SnCl2 leading to the formation of bimetallic complexes of the type R4Sn2L2 have been reported. The synthesis of a mononuclear precursor complex, [(CH3)2Sn(tpdtc)] and several heterobimetallic derivatives of the type, [(CH3)2Sn(tpdtc)]MCl2 have also been reported.
In order to explain the formulae and structures of the complex compounds or complexes, formed by transition metal salts with molecular species such as ammonia, Werner coined the terms primary valence and secondary valence.. These concepts remain valid today except that the term oxidation state has replaced ‘primary valence’ and the term coordination number has replaced ‘secondary valence’ Werner had recognized that a transition metal salt could form a complex compound in which the metal ion became bonded to a number of groups which need not necessarily be the counter anions originally present in the salt. The orientations in space of these metal-bond groups would lead to the complex having a particular geometric structure. Coordination compound has always been a challenge to the inorganic chemistry. The scientists of coordination of compound are Kooser , Lewis, Sidgwick, etc.
The book in hand can furnish baseline information about transition metal complexes synthesized by the reaction of metal salts with Schiff base derived from aniline and salicylaldehyde. All these complexes soluble in DMSO have been characterized through physical techniques such as melting point and elemental analysis, it has been observed that organic ligand bound to central metal atom through the oxygen bond of hydroxyl group, the physical state of metal complexes after reaction with the ligand vary from metal to metal. The complex confirmation was made through melting point and also through elemental analysis. The IR data of the complexes provide sufficient information about the geometry of complexes. Therefore it should be in every scientific library around the country.
Book comprises a one pot synthesis (modified Krohnke method) of terpyridines, their characterization. Synthesized terpyridines and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline were employed to synthesize octahedral perchlorates of Ru(II). complexes are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using Zone of inhibition and MIC, Nuclease activity was studied by using Viscosity measurement supported by Absorption Titration.
The coordination chemistry of hydrazones is an intensive area of study and numerous transition metal complexes of these ligands have been investigated, which stemmed from the interest in the biological and pharmacological properties of these hydrazones. It is also known that mono and bis-hydrazones find wide applications in medicine as active physiological preparations, due to their antibacterial, tuberculostatic, fungicdal properties as well as activities against certain types of cancers and microorganisms. Further more benzothiazole and its derivatives constitute an important class of compounds having a wide spectrum of biological activity.
A series of chemical and biological investigations has proved that Schiff bases are very important ligands and take part in many non enzymatic processes. The Schiff bases have identified as best chelating ligands and form stable metal complexes with transition metals, therefore, these are widely used ligands in the synthesis of transition metal complexes. Although, these metals occur in trace amount but form stable complexes with Schiff bases ligands having wide range of applications in living organisms. This book, therefore, gives a deep insight into the transition metal complexes of Schiff bases and their biological applications including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, etc.
Beta lactam derivatives exhibit a range of bioactivities, including anti-angiogenic, anti-tumour, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anti-tubercular, anti-glaucoma, anti-HIV, cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties. The synthesis of metal complexes of lactam derivatives had received much attention due to the fact that they are among the first effective chemotherapeutic agents to be employed for the prevention and cure of bacterial infection in humans. The pharmacological activity of these types of molecules is often enhanced by complexation with metal ions.Certain theories had been advanced advocating that a major portion of drug action occurred through complexation. The importance of metal ions in biological systems is well known. One of the most interesting features of metal coordinated systems is the concerted spatial arrangement of the ligands around the metal atom.
The use of Schiff bases as ligands has enjoyed a very rich history with importance of metal complexes in a variety of industrial and biological applications. Stereochemical flexibility is well documented among Schiff-base complexes arising from central metal, the source of the carbonyl function, the amine, as well as substituents on and steric bulkiness around the Schiff base. Schiff bases accommodate different metals with various coordination modes allowing synthesis of stable complexes with varied stereochemistry. Numerous Schiff bases and their transition metal complexes have been investigated by various techniques for different purposes. Schiff-base metal complexes have been widely studied because they have industrial, antifungal and biological applications. Chelating ligands containing O and N donor atoms show broad biological activity and are of special interest because of the variety of ways in which they are bonded to metal ions.
Master Thesis in inorganic chemistry , it include the Synthesis and Characterization of Cu(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Fe(II) metal ions Complexes of Thiocarbohydrazone Schiff Bases. Thiocarbohydrazones Schiff base complexes were prepared from the reaction of bis (furfural) thiocarbohydrazone(FU), bis (pyrrole-2- carboxaldehyde) thiocarbohydrazone(PY), bis(thiophen-2-aldehyde) thiocarbohydrazone(TH) and bis(piperonaldeyde)thiocarbohydrazone (PI) with Cu(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Fe(II) metal ions. The Schiff bases were prepared from the reaction of thiocarbohydrazide with furfural, pyrrole-2- carboxyaldehde, thiophene-2-aldehyde and pipronaldehyde. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements.
This book discusses the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and Biological activity studies of some bio active ligands. After an introduction, the book covers in a clearly ordered manner structure and bonding, Biological acivity of bio active metal complexes and finally Nuclic acid interaction of the complexes. Suitable for graduate students, master courses and postdocs, this is the first textbook to discuss the whole range of contemporary coordination chemistry. Scope for further development of such applications is extensive as several biological processes in living cells involve metal complexes.This book has been written keeping these important aspects of the subject in mind.
This book, which is characterized by many novel interesting and useful features of approach and presentation. The objectives are listed at the beginning of chapter. The contents of each chapter are presented in a clear, accurate and balance view of inorganic chemistry. This book not only fulfils the requirements of the new synthesis but also caters to the students who would like to delve deeper into the subject. It convinces the researchers that there is more to inorganic chemistry than equations!
1,4-Benzenedicarboxylate(BDC), 1,1'-ferrocenedicarboxylate(FDC) and their metal complexes are of considerable interest due to their chemical and biological importance. Thiazoles represent a very interesting class of compounds because of their pharmaceutical, analytical and industrial applications. The aim of this work is therefore to synthesize and characterize a series of transition and non-transition metal coordination polymers derived from 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate and / or 1,1'-ferrocenedicarboxylate and thiazoles, to explore their structures and biological activities. A study of the thermal behaviour of these complexes is important to elucidate the kinetic and mechanistic aspects of their thermolysis as well as their stabilities. It is also aimed to study the voltammetric behaviour of these complexes to gain more understanding about the chemistry of these compounds.
The present Book describes research on synthesis and characterization of metal complexes for biological evaluations. Metal ions complexes can be introduced into a biological system either for therapeutic effect or as diagnostic aids. Here, focus on this book for design and synthesis of copper (II) and palladium (II) complexes, which exhibit, antibacterial activity (MIC) against Gram (-ve) and Gram (+ve) bacteria, Interaction between small molecules and DNA can often cause DNA damage in cancer cells and also investigate cytotoxicity studies.
Macrocyclic ligands that can incorporate two or more metal ions giving homo- or hetero-dinuclear complexes are of considerable interest. Some of these hetero-dinuclear complexes are interesting as they mimic the active sites of metalloenzymes, such as cytochrome-c oxidase and bovine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase. Such systems are very helpful in investigating mutual influences of the two metal centers on electronic, magnetic, and electrochemical properties. Therefore, such types of system are very helpful in biological diagnostic applications. Research in inorganic chemistry has expanded in recent years by exploiting a variety of chelating ligands to modify and control the characteristics of metal ions in biological systems. Macrocyclic ligands offer the benefit of high stability complex formation and, through functionalization, the opportunity to modify the coordination environment. The pharmaceutical and bio-medical industry has yet to appreciate the impact coordination chemistry can have on the design of novel medicines. This may change the future as skilled multi-disciplinary experts may develop their investigation using a strategic approach to complex design.
Applications Transition metal complexes of acylhydrazones and related N, O donor Schiff bases and their metal complexes have attracted considerable attention during recent years because of their applications in several bio-chemical, industrial and analytical processes. Some of the applications of these compounds are mentioned below: As biological probes As optical devices As catalyst Mesogenic behavior As sensing material As DNA cleaving agents Super oxide dismutase-mimic activity In analytical processes Other uses The hydrazones have been used as plasticizers and stabilizers for polymers [Kuhn et al. (2001), Gupta et al. (2007)], polymerization initiators and antioxidants etc. Hydrazone compounds have the ability to control the release of volatile aldehydes and ketones [Levrand et al. (2006)]. The phenyl derivative Schiff bases have been used as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in hydrochloric solution [Unaleroglu et al. (2001)]. It is apparent from the above applications that the selected field of transition metal complexes of N, O donor ligands is very useful and multi-dimensional. Each new ligand/ new complex or new study gives a new direction to the area of research.