Idiomatic expressions, whose figurative meanings cannot always be deciphered from the meanings of their constituent parts, have drawn the attention of different scholars in recent years. Because of non-compositionality of idiomatic expressions, they present a special language problem for ESL and EFL language learners. This study investigated the on-line processing strategies used by the Iranian advanced EFL learners who were asked to give the meanings of selected common idioms presented in a written context. the findings of this study can provide those engaged in English language teaching and learning with suitable means for preempting and solving the problemsrelated to idioms and the learning of them.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of focus on form on the acquisition of English middle voice by Iranian EFL learners. Forty participants were assigned to two groups with learners in the experimental group receiving formal instructions on middle voice structure in English. An independent t-test was run to compare the two groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups. The results are discussed with respect to the promising effect of focus-on-form instruction.
The present study investigated the relationship among four different test tasks and different test-taking strategies used by Iranian EFL learners. This study also tried to find out whether there was any significant relationship between the use of test-taking strategies and the amount of learner‘s level of anxiety. It also investigated the difference between male and female learners in terms of test-taking strategy use.
It seems that in most of English classes in Iran little attention is paid to the role of pre-listening activities in promoting L2 learners listening comprehension. Hence, the objective of this study is to compare the effect of different pre-listening activities on Iranian EFL learners listening comprehension. The data for this study was collected from 75 students as they were involved in a variety of pre-listening activities. They were divided into three groups. The first experimental group was involved in pre-question activities, the second experimental group was involved pre-teaching vocabulary and the third experimental group was involved in visual support. After treatment each group was given a test to answer.Data analysis has been done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences software The findings in this study indicate a statistically significant effect of pre-question activities compared with pre-teaching vocabulary and visual support on learners' listening comprehension. The study suggests some procedures to be considered in EFL classrooms. Teachers can use pre-question activities to give learners opportunity for obtaining higher rates of listening comprehension.
Distinct Motivational Levels Within of Iranian (EFL) learners'.Fakhri Mesri Department of English, Salmas Branch,Islamic Azad University, Salmas,Iran.Why do people learn second languages?The answers to this question is important because motivation is to be one of the main determining factors in success in developing a second or foreign language.The objective of this study is, to distinct various kinds of motivation in Iranian EFL context and also compares the effect of age on various kinds of motivation in promoting Iranian EFL learners L2 learning. The data for this study was collected from 50 (male& female) Salmas Azad University students. Language proficiency test was administrated in order to make sure about the homogeneity of the learners'. They had to complete the questioners related various kinds of motivation. The Data analysis has been done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The final result of this study shows that instrumental motivation received higher scores than other kinds of motivation moreover; there was no significant effect of age on Iranian EFL learners' various kinds of motivation.
There is little doubt that computers and other media have changed the face of learning in general, and language learning in particular. Idioms, as one of the most challenging areas of language, are no exception. This book is an empirical study investigating the feasability as well as the effectiveness of computer-based distance learning procedures applied to L2 idioms learning. It offers a relatively rich literature review and an empirical analysis of the effect of electronic glossing and hyperlinking on Iranian EFL learners' comprehension and production of English Idioms. It could be interesting for EFL learners, teachers, and materials developers.
The present book reports on an empirical study aimed at examining whether EFL learners are willing to communicate when they are presented with communication opportunity and whether MacIntyre et al.'s proposed model (1998) is appropriate in an EFL context by shedding light on the relationship among communicative, socio-psychological, and linguistic variables in the Iranian context. A better understanding of students’ willingness to communicate in the second language helps teachers improve their use of the communicative language teaching approach to create more communication opportunities for language learners to use language for meaningful communication.
Communicating effectively in foreign language depends mainly on the strategies one employs to convey meanings when facing speaking problems. Although a lot of studies have been done in recent years on learning strategies used by native language learners, little attention has been given to teach communication strategies to EFL learners in Iran. In this book, the researcher tries to investigate the effect of communication strategy instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ oral performance across genders. This research aims to shed light on interrelationship among these variables and suggests the best methods to teach communication strategies that would be useful for English language institutes, curriculum designers, EFL teachers and learners, lecturers, or anyone else who may be involved in the process of teaching and learning English.
The present study aimed to determine the relationship between language learning strategies and vocabulary size in Iranian EFL learners. Therefore, 150 Zoha English Language Learners were given Oxford university and Cambridge university placement test. Oxford strategies inventory for language learning (SILL) were used, as well. According to Brown (2000) taxonomy, three classification of strategies as metacognitive, cognitive, social/affective strategies were included in the present study. Besides, Vocabulary Size Test based on the Norbert Schmitt’s test, to measure the vocabulary size by assessing the learners’ basic knowledge of common meaning of words in order to the relationship between language learning strategies and vocabulary size would be distinguished. After the data have been elicited, the results were statistically analyzed by using SPSS soft ware. The statistical study of the three proficiency levels manifest that the mean and standard deviation of metacognitive strategy is the most frequently used among others. It is also, understood that the employment of F-Test demonstrates that advanced proficiency level learners use the language learning strategies
English, as a global language, is one of the dominant mediums in great number of areas such as politics, economy, and international education. English is the major tool to communicate with the all people around the world and the main language used for international trade and academic study. That is why people want to learn English as a foreign or second language in their countries especially in Iran. Educational materials in general and textbooks in particular have a crucial role in this process. Moreover, the tangible element that gives a language course face validity to many teachers and learners is the textbook. That is why textbook selection and evaluation appears to be a very important issue in teaching and learning process.
Unknown word is a major impediment in L2 reading comprehension. In order to investigate how Chinese EFL learners tackle unknown words in reading, this book explored the lexical inferencing of Chinese learners in terms of the intent, the clue use, the procedure, the processing type, the adaptability, and the success of lexical inferencing as well as the subsequent lexical knowledge acquisition. Chinese EFL learners at four stages of English learning participated in this study. Questionnaire, think-aloud introspection and a surprise test were employed in this study. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively to identify the type & amount of clue use, the event sequence of inferencing, the processing type & adaptability, the outcome of lexical inferencing, and the subsequent vocabulary knowledge acquisition in lexical inferencing.
This book is about the match between English as foreign Language learners’ vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) use and their English language achievement. The book, specifically, tried to address which category of vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs): determination, social, memory, cognitive, or meta-cognitive do the different levels achiever students use. Generally, this book suggests EFL teachers and English textbook designers as there is a match between students' VLS use and performance and that students lack certain VLS.
The present book reports on an empirical study aimed at investigating critical thinking ability among EFL students. Moreover, the effects of gender, major, and critical thinking-oriented instruction through a critical reading program were examined. A better understanding of EFL students’ critical thinking ability helps teachers improve the instruction of critical thinking and consequently students can benefit from it.
Nowadays, the requirement for mastery in academic English has been increasingly augmented due to the worldwide demand for professional individuals. Thereupon, educational scholars and practitioners endeavor to consciously concentrate on learners both affectively and cognitively as they assumed that learners' cognitive-affective states play an important role in their academic achievement. Among a plethora of factors which influence Language learners' academic achievement, test-taking anxiety is viewed as one of the most important cognitive-affective factor which shed light on learners' educational performance. Furthermore, it is proposed that learners' test anxiety is influenced by other factors such as mindfulness, self-regulation, self-efficacy and intrinsic value.
Amidst the whole host of claims on the process of acquiring a second language has emerged the present study. In it, the processes involved in the acquisition of the pro-drop parameter properties by Moroccan EFL learners are accounted for. The theoretical tools mobilized for this undertaking are the ones that draw from Optimality Theory. The study is motivated by the almost universal agreement on the difficulty inherent in acquiring the English pronoun system in general. The book accordingly puts to test the major hypothesis that academic level can be a factor in acquiring pro-drop parameter properties (That-trace, word order, null subject and resumptive pronoun) and whether some of these properties are acquired before others in an implicational manner. This book is likely to interest researchers in Second Language Acquisition, Optimality Theory and English Language Teaching. However, given the relative simplicity in its writing, the work might also interest general readership.
This book is considered as the first book which sheds light on the most important errors committed by Arab speaking EFL learners when using English adjectives. No body in the Arab world dared to discuss the common errors committed by Arab students who learn English as a foreign language in using English adjectives.I hope through this work to benefit the Arab EFL learners to avoid committing errors when using English adjectives. I also hope to benefit the Arab researchers for the purpose of investigating another errors in using English adjectives.
Optional Infinitive (OI) stage introduces a period in early language acquisition process through which finite and non-finite forms co-occur in similar contexts. With this regard, this book highlights the comprehension and production of OI features including application of infinitive markers, subject-verb agreement, and tense markers by Persian lower and upper intermediate EFL learners. The work aimed at exploring the effect of learners’ proficiency level and L1 transfer on the acquisition of these features. Moreover, it attempted to apply its results to Truncation and Unique Checking Constraint as two major models proposed to explain OI features through a critical view. The results can provide second language teachers and syllabus designers with pedagogical feedback and helpful information on the related features attributed to each proficiency level.
This book investigated the impact of neuro-linguistics programming on anxiety and self -steem among Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners. Sixty-six pre-intermediate EFL learners were involved in this research. The researcher selected randomly four classes. Old methods were used for teaching control group and NLP treatment for experimental group.
Most second language researchers believe that the more communicative the task is the more acquisition opportunities may occur among EFL learners. For a task to be more communicative it should trigger more negotiation of meaning through providing learners with opportunities to use English for a genuine purpose. Both tasks that elicit specific linguistic forms and tasks that elicit general samples of language can provide learners with genuine opportunities of negotiation of meaning. However, the frequency of negotiation and the structures that are promoted by each task type are different. This book investigates these differences through the performance of EFL learners of both focused and unfocused communication tasks. Statistical results and interpretations revealed that learners performed both tasks as unfocused tasks and they were able to use different communication strategies to circumvent the target structure. Additionally, Examples of different language structures produced by learners in both tasks are highlighted with explanation. Learners' perceptions of their own performance are explored and implications that may shed light on any potential learning effect are discussed too.
To all those who love language teaching and learning and strive every day to learn about others as much a as they wish to teach them....to all the language teachers to continue to build bridges of common life interest and ambitions through their effort in teaching children how to communicate with all people in all languages, colors and creeds. Language teaching and learning is a unique tool for spreading life aspirations and concerns. Languages bring all people together in a well informed and organized manner where they exchange life experiences and build relations of prosperity, growth and glory to all human kind every day. Language is the one powerful tool that is out there for everyone to use in order to continue moving our world forward on grounds of peace, harmony and consideration for all.