Brucellosis continues to be a zoonosis of worldwide public health and economic importance. Transmission is mainly through consumption of raw milk or animal contact. The clinical diagnosis of brucellosis is difficult especially in the early stages when the infection must distinguished from other causes of prolonged fever. The epidemiological significance of each animal species is determined by the Brucella species that normally infects the species.
The etiology of viral diarrhoea in children in the Saudi Arabia is incompletely characterized. Available data suggest that the causative agents are found at approximately similar frequencies here as elsewhere. This book addressed; the epidemiology of diarrhea viruses in pediatric populations initially rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, astrovirus and norovirus. Furthermore, the existing data on these Viruses in KSA and, characterization for genotypes using molecular methods in KSA.
Term “reform” or “reformation” is not new for Saudi society. Since its formation these terms are continuously being used. The transformation of Arabian Peninsula’s geographic arrangement into modern state of Saudi Arabia itself is the result of socio-religious reform movement of Wahhabism. Later it passed through many reformation phases in the context of Pan Arabism, rising religious militancy after Iranian Revolution, falling oil prices in different global political scenarios, Persian Gulf War, and finally the worst among all, events of September 11, 2001. Before 9/11 some reformed socio-political and religious parameters started changing a stubborn and orthodox sphere into comparatively modernize and flexible environment. Since 9/11 Saudi Arabia is facing many internal and external threats. These threats are mainly considered as the major drivers that led the Saudi society towards serious steps of socio-cultural, economic and political reforms. Reform process and its outputs in Saudi Arabia has become a matter of great significance, not only for Royal House and Saudi citizens, but also for international community as well.
The aim of this study is to understand how contemporary art photography in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia represents the complex national identity using symbolism as well as direct references to cultural and religious elements and artefacts. In order to do so, a combination of qualitative analysis and semiotic is used to describe and interpret the coded message implemented in the photographs of the selected artists. With the help of the author's personal experience in the Saudi Kingdom between 2008 and 2012, and his personal relations with some artists there, he will demonstrate how the complex, and sometimes troubled, identity of Saudi Arabians is reflected throughout these works. Based on this method, the research asserts that the troubles faced by Saudi citizens regarding self-identity, national identity and the relation to the external world in building identity are complex and a widely recurring theme in contemporary art photography.
Saudi Arabia is very special country of what it has. Saudi Arabia is the largest market in the Arabian Gulf region and, despite current political and economic uncertainties, offers investors and exporters many opportunities in a wide variety of business sectors. Key factors driving economic policy include the desire to reduce the dependence on oil, and the need to provide jobs, housing and services to citizens in a time of rapid population growth. The foreign investment law of 2000 significantly changed the rules for foreign investors, permitting 100% ownership of projects. There is a streamlined foreign investment application process with various investment incentives(Sagia, 2006). The cost of entering the Saudi market is high because of the large cultural distance between most Westernized foreign investors and the Saudis. The market presents many opportunities and is extremely competitive. Saudi Arabia''s attractiveness is related to its position at the heart of a regional market that includes the GCC countries and the Arab world in general.
ELT in Saudi Arabia: A Study of Learners' Needs Analysis offers insights into the Saudi under graduate learners’ needs to learn English. The book covers the following areas: 1.Difficulties or problems in the four basic language skills of English in students from different levels; 2.The learners’ needs to acquire the knowledge of English; 3.The students’ motivations and attitudes towards English language learning in order to formulate effective strategies targeted at different proficiency levels; 4.The students’ language learning experiences and their potential language skills that can be explored and promoted by teachers and peers. Through this small scale study, an effort has been made to help the policy makers,curriculum designers and language teaching professionals in imparting effective ELT program at the undergraduate level in Saudi Arabia.
The main objective of this study was to conduct and extensive epidemiological survey of haemochosis under various environmental conditions in order to observe the kinetics of its larvae. The detection was carried out thorough ELISA and therapeutic trials were conducted using various herbal, biological homeopathic and allopathic drugs. Homeopathic drugs showed better results than other drugs. Future suggestions are described in perspective of the emerging diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.
Although global contact and the influence of Western culture have created similarities between children at different parts of the world, diversities can also clearly be observed. This accentuates children’s own role in constructing their culture and the fact that they are actively involved in interpreting the cultural aspects they deal with in their every day life. this book examines the first years of life at different historical periods in Saudi Arabia, and trace the gradual emergence of a new understanding of children and childhood. In a sense, it is looking at the evidence for the creation of a Western type childhood within the Saudi Arabian context. It aims to investigate and provide evidence regarding the continuities and changes in children’s socialization, with a special focus on being a girl, in tradition and contemporary Saudi Society.
An investor's crucial guide to the changing face of Saudi Arabian business Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia is an essential reference guide, informing investors on the key issues that define how business will be done as the nation's family-owned businesses change hands. Supported by the U.S.-Saudi Arabian Business Council, this book introduces the reader to the new Saudi entrepreneur and explains why Saudi Arabia's boom deserves more of the world's attention. As the heads of family-owned businesses age and corporate boards are reshaped, business practices will be influenced by the ascension of the country's young leaders. Interviews with young Saudi entrepreneurs describe the challenges, triumphs, failed attempts, and successful endeavors they experience every day as time-tested traditional models bump up against more modern, innovative ideas and methods. The book's companion website features a variety of useful tools and documents that help readers implement the concepts presented, and the firsthand information provides deep insight into the future of these companies. Saudi Arabia is profoundly influencing the technological advances of multiple industries through increasing collaboration and in-country partnerships with communities around the world. The evolution of the Kingdom's family-owned businesses is becoming more important to investors as young Saudis claim their legacies, and this book provides an insightful understanding of the changing nature of Saudi business. Meet the emerging entrepreneur class of Saudi Arabia Learn how the Saudi boom affects global business Discover what investors need to know about the Saudi economy Examine how time and technology is reshaping the way business is done Gain useful insight into the direction management of the Kingdom's growth will take over the next five years The Saudi economy constitutes thirty percent of the Arab world's GDP, and sixty percent of the population is under the age of thirty. Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia provides essential information investors need to navigate the changing tide of doing business in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia, an oil based economy possesses more than a quarter of global oil reserves and has been the largest oil producer for over half a century. Oil exports generate total revenue for the nation''s development expenditure in its entirety. But lately Saudi Arabia has acknowledged that the objective of long term economic development cannot be attained by depending on a single source of revenue. Therefore, Saudi Arabia embarked upon a long term economic development planning to reduce this dependence on a single export commodity and to accelerate structural diversification. Structural diversification has been one of the dominant objectives of all the eight development plans. Saudi Arabia has aggressively attempted privatization in its industrialization process in this respect. Further, in this pursuit Saudi Arabia joined the WTO and opened its economy to ease inflow of investments from abroad. This book has been written to analyze Saudi Arabia''s strategies and its level of success till date to diversify its economy away from export of oil only
“The study is essentially an investigation into the phenomenon of Anglicisation in Saudi Arabia and how the occurrence is perceived by the students studying at university level in the Kingdom. The research will also determine if geographic origin influences the students’ attitude towards Anglicisation and challenge the perception that ‘The [urban] Saudi people have modern attitudes and behaviour patterns relating to consumption and lifestyle [while] the Bedouin [does not]. (Al-Ghofaili, Ibrahim F., Unknown Date: 32). The investigation will focus on the consequences of Linguistic Capital and Linguistic Imperialism and if the students consider English ‘a high-status, world-wide language which is used by groups who possess economic, social, cultural and political power and status in local and global society’ (Talbot et al, 2003: 274).”
Explore Saudi Arabia with this Freytag&Berndt double-sided road map. The best way to plan your trip, prepare your itinerary, and to travel independently in this country. This map includes Oman, Yemen, UAE, Qatar, Bahrein, and Kuweit. Масштаб карты: 1:2 000 000. Размер карты в развернутом виде: 1028 мм х 800 мм.
Jazan Province is located in southern Saudi Arabia at borders with Yemen in Arabian Peninsula. It has been introduced to mosquito borne diseases outbreaks such as malaria and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV). The spatial distribution and ecological niche modeling of mosquito vectors was characterized using geographic information system, remote sensing and maximum entropy. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) was used to establish a fast, reliable and accurate chemical identification method for wild collected mosquito vectors based on their cuticular hydrocarbons’ profiles.
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common infectious disease among human population worldwide. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading cause of RTIs in infants and young children with a high disease impact on the lower respiratory tract. Two types of HRSV; A and B, were found to circulate concurrently with slight predominance of type A in most epidemics. There is a substantial lack of information on HRSV circulating in Saudi Arabia in terms of circulating types and strains, virus isolation, antigenic and genetic characterization, and phylogenetic relationship with strains circulating worldwide.
Malaria is an important mosquito-borne disease in Tihama lowland areas of Saudi Arabia and the health authority is currently, adopting a national policy for malaria elimination. Due to scarcity of information on the ecology of larval population of mosquito vectors in this area, the present study was conducted in an attempt to provide updated knowledge on this aspect in the study area. The study was conducted in 3 ecologically different strata known as malaria endemic in Tihama lowland. The larval ecology was studied over a 24-month period and a total of 7712 mosquito larvae were collected between October 2005 and September 2007. The larval fauna composed of 7, 11 and 4 species of the genera Anopheles, Culex and Aedes, respectively. The study encountered Cx. duttoni, Cx. decens and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, as first record in Saudi Arabia. Six types of habitats were surveyed, the most significant of which was wadi (valley)habitat. Anopheles arabiensis showed significant tendency towards breeding in wadi habitat, whereas An. sergentii breed readily in at least 3 different habitats. Depth and temperature of water are significant characters in the occurrence and density of An. arabiensis.
The present work is an attempt to analyze the development drive of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Since the inception of First Five Year Development Plan to the Tenth Five Year Development Plan (1971-2016) many spectacular changes have been taken place in the Kingdom. Keeping in view, the Kingdom’s unique Geography, Religion, Culture and Economic base many models and theories have been inquired in this direction. So, the present study has been conducted in such a way that could generate a clear cut idea about the whole journey of economic development and growth. The economic evolution of the Kingdom in historical perspective can be conveniently divided into four major stages: (i) 1902-1938, (ii) 1938-1970, (iii) 1973-1981, and (iv) 1982-till date. During the first stage the economy was traditional and primitive. However, in the second phase and particularly in 1950’s the Government, invested heavily in developing oil sector resulting in impressive growth rate of an average of 10.6 percent per annum. By the end of this, period key structural characteristics of expanding the economy could easily be identified as an inadequate infrastructure and shortage of manpower coupled with excess.