The present investigation was carried out agricultural college, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Hyderabad, India, with title Response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to top dressing of phosphorus through complex fertilizers the objective of evaluate the to study the effect of top dressing of phosphorus through complex fertilizers on growth and yield of rice. to find out the optimum time of application of phosphorus through complex fertilizers for rice. to find out a better source of phosphorus for top dressing in rice during 2009–10. The findings of the experiment revealed that All the growth parameters such as plant height, total number of tillers m-2 and drymatter were not significantly influenced by sources of P at different times of application, except drymatter at 30 and 90 DAT
Bulk of Adama red onion variety is highly produced in Rift valley areas of Ethiopia (Alage is found in this area), but the productivity is declining due to continuous cultivation, high soil pH and other factors, in order to improve the productivity of the crop, applying organic (farm yard manure) and inorganic (nitrogen and phosphorus) fertilizers in the research area shows a promising result in improving the yield of the crop as well as physical and chemical properties of the soil.
In the recent years, there is growing concern regarding the nutritive value of foods and to nourish the ever increasing population and the inadequacy of essential nutrients can be improved through fortifications. The findings from various studies revealed that content of minerals in plant foods can be altered by the application of fertilizers to the soil by balancing the with micronutrients. Although iodine is not essential element to plant, but iodine is an important essential micronutrient element for human being and animals. If require for synthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxins and triiodothyroxin which are iodinated molecules of the amino acid tyrosine. The thyroid hormones regulate a variety of important physiological processes including cellular oxidation and protein synthesis in all cells. Iodine deficiency results in thyroid dysfunction, indicated by condition known as goiter in human being. In women it deficiency leads to pregnancy wastage in the form of abortion or still birth and in new born baby as mental deficiency and dwarfism. Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) constitutes a major nutrition deficiency disorder in India.
Soil health has become a cause of concern for sustainable agricultural production in the new millennium. Use of high analysis fertilizers, heavy sulphur removal by the crops under intensive cultivation & neglect of S replenishment contributed to widespread S deficiencies. Sulphur deficiencies have been reported from 72 countries in the world. Sulphur has a great role in N-fixation by influencing active nodulation in legume & despite the relatively low S requirement of rice , the productivity of these staple food grains may drastically be reduced by an inadequate supply of S. Sulphur has the ability to benefit more than one crop in sequence due to it’s significant residual response. Application of higher dose of phosphorus (60 kg P205 /ha ) and increasing levels of sulphur up to 40 kg S/ha proved to be the best in improving the growth, yield attributing characters, grain yield of green gram. Varying levels of residual fertility and basal dose of nitrogen application significantly improved the rice yield and yield attributes. The research data of this book makes it useful reference for researchers, under graduate and post graduate students of agriculture and farming community.
Potato is playing a major role in national food security, poverty alleviation and income generation. Sustainable food production to feed the ever increasing human population is a critical issue today. The dual challenge of meeting human food requirements and maintaining or even improving the quality of environment is the basic objective of sustainable crop production. The increase in depletion of plant nutrients and production of much more potato dry matter in a shorter cycle makes generally most of the soils unable to supply these nutrients especially in acidic soils. High affinity of phosphorus and potassium for chemical reactions and fixation in the soils also put these nutrients on the priority list in soil fertility management studies. Therefore, this book provides gen on the effect of different rates of inorganic phosphorus and potassium fertilizers affect the yield and yield components of potato as well as agronomic and the quality of potato tubers parameters in acidic soils. Professionals like researchers, students, instructors, agronomists, laboratory technicians, agricultural investors and others related to agriculture field are benefited from this scrutiny.
This book is an outcome of research carried out for 4 years at Fergusson College, University of Pune (MS), India in association with Baykoula Research Centre, Neka, Mazandaran,IRAN. The research was focused on formulations of organic fertilizers and testing these fertilizers in rice farming system. The book encompasses five chapters pertaining to effect of organic fertilizers on rice productivity and soil properties. Chapter-I comprises a review on organic fertilizers, effects of organic fertilizer on rice growth, productivity,biochemicals and antioxidant enzymes as well as on soil minerals. Chapter-II incorporates effects of different formulations of organic fertilizer on rice growth and productivity. Chapter-III relates to influence of organic fertilizers on biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymes. Chapter -IV relates to effects of organic fertilizer on soil properties. A brief summary is also included at the end. Different formulations of organic fertilizers and their effects on rice productivity and soil properties provide useful information to the students , teachers and researchers in the field of Botany and Agriculture and even to soil scientists.
Poor adoption of genotype is due to the improper level of understanding for required features of varieties release, and only putting major focus on grain yield and few other characteristics client oriented an alternative approach to conventional plant breeding as it targets the breeding program to meet the specific needs of farmers. Willingness to adopt the COB varieties is significantly determined by tillering, less irrigation requirement, easy threshing and eating quality. Mitigation of degradation processes and restoration of soil productivity is a priority concerned in respect to achieving both food security and poverty reduction. So the application of organic, inorganic manures and fertilizers in an integrated and balance way have been emphasized. Matching N supply with crop demand optimizes N use efficiency and reduce N losses. The key findings of this studies concluded that the participatory methods of varieties development and dissemination seem the effectiveness of increasing diversity of genotypes and replacement rates under farmers'' customary management. Further findings and suggestions are mentions in this book.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are widespread and agronomically important plant symbiont and often stimulate plant uptake of nutrients such as P, Zn, Cu, and Fe in deficient soils and increases resistance of plants to heavy metals and salts. Plants with coarsely branched roots and with few or no root hairs are expected to be more dependent on mycorrhizal fungi than are plants with finely branched root systems. Scanty information is available on the role of AM fungi on the growth and nutrient uptake of maize especially in soils of India which are generally phosphorus deficient or have an insoluble form. AM mycorrhizae are involved in P nutrition of maize and an understanding of their functioning will assist us in modifying management practices to maximize economic returns through increased fertilizer efficiency. Despite the fact that AM fungal colonization promotes P or N nutrition of host plants independently, the interaction between P and N has been rarely studied in the maize- mycorrhizal system. Hence, an attempt is made to study the influence of graded levels of inorganic (N,P) fertilizers and mycorrhizal inoculum in increasing the productivity and the quality of hybrid maize.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) serves as a staple food for more than three billion people worldwide. Aerobic rice requires the same amount of nutrients as flooded rice, but in the former, there is a problem of phosphorus (P) availability, due to its fixation with other elements. In the soil, P becomes unavailable due to fixation and immobilization and about 70-90% phosphatic fertilizers become fixed in soil. Microorganisms play an important role in agriculture by supplying nutrients to the plants and reduce the demand of chemical fertilizers. Microorganisms, especially phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to solubilize, insoluble P in soil and reduce inputs of chemical fertilizers. Besides PSB are also capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid, a phytohormone known to be involved in root initiation, cell division and cell enlargement. Furthermore, these strains have ability to stimulate the growth of roots and shoots and increased 32P-labeled phosphate uptake in the plants.
Application of organic manures and biofertilizers such as cattle manure and nitrogen fixing bacteria has lead to a decrease in the use of chemical fertilizers and has provided high quality products free of harmful agrochemicals for human safety. Cattle manure is the source of N and other nutrients for plants (such as phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc and copper) that can make valuable contributions to soil’s organic matter, can improve physical fertility, and is a center for biological activities. Free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria such as; Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum lipoferum, were found to have not only the ability to fix nitrogen but also the ability to release phytohormones similar to gibberellic acid and indole acetic acid.
The decline in soil fertility is widespread in Tigray and is threatening food security. Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) which implies combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, helps to overcome the problems associated with single application of either source for enhanced crop productivity. Based on this fact, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of integrated application of inorganic fertilizers and FYM on soil fertility status, agronomic and socioeconomic performance of rice. A 4x3 factorial experiment consisting of four levels of inorganic fertilizers (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha) and three levels of FYM (0, 6 and 9 t/ha) was laid out in RCB Design with three replications. The results revealed that application of 9t/ha FYM with 75 kg/ha of IF resulted in grain yield of 44.4Ql/ha (p< 0.05), but the dominance analysis showed this higher agronomic yield did not brought highest profit because the value of the increase in yield is not enough to compensate for the increase in costs. The perception of the respondent farmers to inorganic fertilizers showed that 76% of the respondents had no willingness to use inorganic fertilizers at full dose.
Rice (oryza sativa L) is a principal source of food for more than half of the world population, especially in South and Southeast Asia and Latin America. Elsewhere, it represents a high value commodity crop. Composting offers the most sensible and economic way to avoid wasting useful natural resources, which create environmental problems, and at the same time it produces a high quality and inexpensive soil amendment. Recycling of organic wastes involves the return of the essential elements to soils that are taken up by plants and find their way into animal, domestic and industrial products. This recycled organic waste may be good supplement of chemical fertilizer. The compost is widely used as soil amendment to improve soil structure. In Pakistan composting could be very useful because, the waste disposal problem is becoming serious day by day.
This book covers study on ‘Response of rice hybrids to planting dates during wet season’. The salient findings are July 5 and July 20 planted crops required 1.4 and 4.6 days more towards maturity, respectively than August 5 planted crop. A linear reduction in GDD and PTU; while the reverse in HTU and summation of BSH for the entire life period was observed with progressive delay in sowing. In comparison with two July plantings, August 5 planted crop produced greater number of tillers during active tillering period, better foliage growth (LAI) resulting higher accumulation of dry matter (DM) throughout the crop growth. All four rice hybrids had higher (>100 cm) plant height at harvest over the HYV check in either of the planting dates. The grain yield increased significantly in August 5 planting over transplanting done on July 5 and July 20, as there was significant improvement in production of panicles m-2 and 1000 grain weight. All four rice hybrids produced longer panicles and > 150 filled grains panicle-1. Except brown rice recovery, dates of planting had no significant effect on kernel length, breadth, L/B ratio, total carbohydrate, protein, KLAC, ER and volume expansion.
The parameters, such as plant height, number of tillers per meter square, number of leaf per tiller, leaf area index, dry matter yield, yield attributes and yield of upland rice were observed highest in chemically fertilized treatment. The highest grain yield (2.337 Mg ha-1) from chemical fertilizer application was at par with fresh and decomposed biogas effluent, yielding 2.189 Mg ha-1 and 2.050 Mg ha-1 grain respectively. The gross return (Rs. 47.43 thousand ha-1) and net return (Rs. 25.00 thousand ha-1) were highest in chemical fertilizer. The benefit-cost ratio (BCR) was the highest (2.28) in fresh biogas effluent, which was almost similar to decomposed biogas effluent (2.18) and chemical fertilizer (2.11). The organic matter content (2.716 %), available phosphorus (42.86 kg ha-1), and available potassium (46.49 kg ha-1) were significantly higher in fresh biogas effluent than the other and that were at par with decomposed biogas effluent. The total nitrogen content was the highest (0.1353 %) in decomposed biogas effluent and was statistically at par with the rest of the treatments.
No one can deny the impact of fertilizers on the yield of crops. Nerica 1 is more responsive to nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. Nitrogen makes the plant green,vigorous and enhances photosynthesis which ultimately increases the yield potential. On the other hand, potassium makes the plant more resistant againgt pests diseases and other natural hazards. To get more yield, fertilize the crop at right time with recommended dose.
Groundwater is severely contaminated with a poisonous element, arsenic, the class I carcinogen in different parts of the world including a vast area of India and Bangladesh. It has already been well established that, arsenic is entering inside human and ruminants not only through drinking water but also via food chain. Rice accumulates higher amount of arsenic than that of other cereals as both arsenate and arsenite take entry into the plant efficiently.. To develop low arsenic accumulating rice, it is mandatory to en light the route and their associated genes responsible for arsenic translocation from soil to grain. This book would help to deduce a strategy to identify candidate arsenic transporter and/or responsive genes for future breeding.
Despite its recent introductions to Ethiopia the cultivated area and production of rice in the country has reached to 156,000 hectares and 500,000 tons during 2009. However, many biotic and abiotic factors limit rice production and productivity. Among abiotic factors, mineral nutrition plays vital roles in rice yield improvement. This publication reviews the fundamental components of fertilizer recommendation: soil testing, plant analysis and plant response to applied nutrients. In line with this, the physical and chemical characteristics of Vertisols, the response of direct seeded rice to different N and P fertilizer levels, and plant N and P uptake are presented and explained in the context of various research findings. The optimum levels of N and P nutrients required for maximum grain yields of rice on flooded Vertisols, also identified. The book, therefore, primarily serves small-scale rice producing farmers and helps them improve food insecurity at a household level. It can also be used as a guideline and provides scientific information regarding soil-water-fertilizer-rice related issues in flooded ecology.
When considering profitable agriculture from a practical perspective, the factors affecting plant growth and harvestable productivity are the utmost important. A number of factors, such as genetics, environment and irrigation management, affect yields independently and through their interactions. Knowledge of these factors, the interactions, and how to manipulate them make it possible for the farm operation to maximize the return. Of course, all are not under the control of the grower. However, crop nutrition and soil fertility can be managed for good yields and production efficiency The performance of improved lentils to vertisols of Haramaya and their response to phosphorus application were studied, accordingly different performance of the varieties to the agroecology as well as different response to Phosphorus were observed. The varieties' maximum yield was also recorded in different rate of P application and few of plant characters were behave differently due to P. it seems, different varieties will be recommended based on availability of the nutrient in interest (P).
A crop nutrient survey was conducted in 54 mandals covering 150 rice fields in Karimnagar district of Andhra Pradesh for developing the DRIS foliar diagnostic norms for N, P, K, S, Zn and Fe and to identify the yield limiting nutrients in rice. The DRIS derived sufficiency ranges for N, P, K and S from nutrient survey of rice crop in the district were 2.2 to 3.6, 0.30 to 0.38, 2.02 to 2.89 and 0.18 to 0.34 per cents respectively. The limits for Zn and Fe were 14.9 to 26.3 and 19.7 to 167.8 mg kg-1 respectively.The number of nutrients diagnosed as yield limiting by DRIS are more than those identified by the CNC method.
Fertilizer is costlier input in agriculture hence suitable type of fertilizer and its efficient use is essential. The liquid fertilizer available in the market are 5 to 6 times costlier than conventional straight fertilizer so attempts needs to be made to explore possibility of using water–soluble straight fertilizer for crop through drip. It is also essential to study the effect of varying levels of fertilizer on crop growth and nutrient uptake under fertigation and planning of efficient fertigation schedule depending on its growth stages. For uniform and efficient application of water and fertilizers, the drip system should have high efficiency and better performance in terms of emission uniformity and water distribution. Water, fertilizer and energy can be saved when irrigation uniformity is improved.