Gaining a clear understanding of the impact of past investments in small-scale irrigation is an essential prerequisite for improving and fine-tuning of future interventions. The result of the study would contribute to design small-scale irrigation development strategies of the country in general and the region in particular. Besides, it will fill the information gap on the contribution of small-scale irrigation on poverty reduction.
The subject matter of this research is presented in the topic the Impact of Mushandike Irrigation Scheme on poverty reduction. The researcher's aim is to show the degree of poverty reduction through food security due to the establishment of Mushandike Irrigation Scheme. The research focuses mainly on the social and economic lives of the people in the irrigation scheme.The researcher used tools as questionnaires and interviews to obtain data.
Developing countries in Africa including Ethiopia are facing problems like extreme poverty, unemployment, low income distributions, low health care, poor education and the like. To pullout these countries out of those problems, MSSEs came to picture as one of the most important policy tool for poverty reduction. This study has examined the impact of MSSEs for poverty reduction in Hawassa City. The data used in the study was collected using survey method from primary sources using questionnaire, interviews, personal observations and focus group discussions while secondary data sources collected using reviews and document researches. The collected data were analyzed using chi square tests, ANOVA, paired sample t-tests and descriptive statistics. The 266 MSSEs owners were selected as a sample of the study using stratified and simple random sampling techniques.
In this study the impact of irrigation technologies on rural households’ poverty status has been assessed. The descriptive statistics showed annual per capita consumption per adult equivalent of diversion irrigation user households was higher than Motor pump users. Correspondingly Motor pump users were better off position than treadle pump users and non-users. Poverty profile comparison showed irrigation users significantly lowered poverty levels in incidence, depth, and severity than non-users. Logistic regression model result showed that farmers who are literate, male headed households, nearer to market and enough numbers of oxen have high chance of participation in irrigation. After controlling for pre-intervention differences of the user and non-user households, it has been found that, irrigation user households have increased per capita consumption by 816.74 birr i.e irrigation has increased per capita consumption of the irrigation technology users by 21.01%. It established the fact that irrigation reduces poverty. Small-scale irrigations using different irrigation water lift technologies must be encouraged to increase crop production and hence reduce poverty.
Sub-Saharan Africa has always been hard hit by several problems for decades now.Seasonal drought has been part of the disasters that plaque the region and with the recent threat of Climate Change, the problems now assume a scary magnitude if efforts are not intensified to mitigate it.Besides, conflicts, lack of policy direction, formulation of policies with unrealistic assumptions, uncommitted political leadership, etc.have impinged on the region's food production and efforts at alleviating poverty. This book examines small scale irrigation schemes as poverty intervention measures in the drylands of Northern Ghana in the West African Region. Two small scale irrigation schemes have been examined to ascertain how a relevant poverty intervention measure can be effectively introduced and made to empower the poor as it has been designed to do especially in the drylands of the Tropics. Though the people in the various communities expressed satisfaction with the performance of the schemes,many problems were uncovered. The book will be relevant to young researchers and undergraduate students of Development Studies, Natural Resource Management and Social Science in general.
This book will contribute immensely to assist potential and existing business men and women especially those those that dwells in the rural areas to improve in their business. it will educate people on how to sustain their livelihoods through the establishment of small business. The book identifies challenges facing these small business owners with a view of creating more jobs, to reduce unemployment rate, crime rate and increase livelihood opportunities as a means of poverty reduction. we are confident that our readers shall found delight in reading this book
Climate change is an immediate and unprecedented threat to the poverty of hundreds of millions of people who depend on small scale agriculture. People living in the developing world are particularly vulnerable to climate change as a result of their high dependence on natural resources for their livelihoods, comparatively higher exposure to extreme events and widespread poverty and marginalization. Changes related to global warming in such areas have potentially serious consequences for ecosystems and people. At the same time, Small-scale irrigation development is one important rural development strategy of Ethiopian government in reducing risks associated with rainfall variability. It was also claimed that Ethiopia cannot assure food security for its population with rain-fed agriculture alone without a substantive contribution of irrigation development. Therefore, these review attempts to examine the link between Climate change adaptation mechanisms and small-scale irrigation development: its implications on poverty reduction in selected regions of Ethiopia.
Dry season irrigation farming has become a major livelihood strategy in the Kassena-Nankana district of the Upper East Region of Ghana. This is especially so due to the increasingly erratic and unreliable rainfall pattern in the Savannah ecological zone. However, small scale irrigation schemes which are the main resource supporting this venture are beset with numerous challenges that threaten their very existence.This book is the outcome of a study conducted to unearth the problems of small scale irrigation schemes. The book discusses the management, maintenance and operational practices of the schemes and points out their strengths and areas that need further improvement. Notice is made of areas of support which are beyond the ability of the individual schemes as with de-silting the reservoirs and capacity building. The findings and recommendations of the study should serve as pointer for government and civil society to one of the areas to direct their resources if the interest is to reduce poverty levels and out-migration from the three northern regions of Ghana. The Savannah Accelerated Development Authority (SADA)should find this book useful in their work.
Poverty is a harsh and undesired phenomenon in mankind. Reducing, if possible eradicating poverty is unquestionable. Thus, microfinance programs have been considered as one of the main instruments in poverty reduction in recent development agenda. It is a means to support the marginalized active poor of the society. Studying the impact of microfinance intervention is important to assess its viability on poverty reduction. The impact of delivering financial services to poor clients was analyzed based on some socio- economic and political indicators in different levels.
Most irrigation performance assessment studies have focused on internal indicators in which infield water use efficiencies were main target areas. Although such performance assessing parameters require collecting of intensive primary data which is in most cases time consuming and are challenging, their recommendations will be limited to infield water management improvement. IWMI has developed a methodology for assessing production, financial and water supply performances of either small or large scale irrigation schemes. The methodology applies internal and external indicators and requires very few data. The methodology can be applied for comparing different types of irrigation systems at different scales and also to evaluate a single scheme alone. This book attempted to introduce the concept of comparative performance indicators together with some process or internal indicators as a tool to ass two small-scale irrigation schemes of Ethiopia where availability of data is scarce. The outputs are very helpful for farmers, irrigation professionals, designers, researchers and policy makers.
In order to bring a beneficial impact on rural living condition, policies ought to target at facilitating the increase in agricultural production and productivity; and ensuring their sustainable usage and performance status, thus by providing irrigation technology we can decrease rural poverty and improve the living condition of rural society. therefore, additional funds for agricultural research activities dealing with investments in irrigation projects should be done.
The management of small scale irrigation is a key for achieving food security and sustainable agricultural development .This study uses water use ,control structure and organizational activities as a conceptual frame work .To conduct the study, key informants,focus group discussion and house hold survey were used. The findings indicate that there were some problems in water use ,control structure and organizational activities.
The book combines two aims; the small-scale irrigation utilization by small scale farm households specifically why a portion of the farm households utilize irrigation while others not yet even the access and opportunity is equal to both and what factors hinder the utilization in one hand and the contribution of small-scale irrigation to both the users and none users of irrigation on the other hand. It also includes the negative effects of small-scale irrigation in addition to the positive effects which help policy makers for planning other similar irrigations schemes.
In recent years a number of socio-economic development schemes have been introduced to uplift the condition of rural masses in India. In the past Govt. had sponsored several schemes to eliminate rural poverty. But the purpose of generating an all-round enhanced livelihood opportunity based on creation of an improved ambience has only partially been served by such programmes. The recent focus, therefore, has been on the assets / processes/ activity framework concerned with not only poverty reduction but also promoting sustainable livelihood enhancing strategies and access to assets. In this context a study has been made to assess the efficacy of some of these Govt. schemes and their impact on peoples'' livelihood in Birbhum, district,West Bengal(India). However the sheer diversity of such schemes and differences in their accounting procedure and fund management along with various layers of implementation, often complicate the execution by making the system cumbersome. Hence an incisive analysis has also been made for mooting a proposal for the integration and consolidation of such schemes under a unique programme with uniform guidelines and flexibility in administrative order.
The study was designed to assess the impact of LUC on crop production as a tool of reducing poverty in rural area of developing country.Under the following study objectives:To quantify the effect of LUC on productivity and household income,to estimate general average of crop production and household income before and after LUC. This research aims to generate information on living condition of small farmers who practiced voluntarily LUC,which help in policy in general. Findings indicate that LUC has impacted crop productivity to ensure food security,and uplifted the economic and well being of farmers through increased incomes(profitability)from increased crop production.
Though the roles of water were impressive, little was known on its impacts towards poverty reduction. This study examined the role of small water projects in poverty alleviation. It was done in Mvomero district. It used a cross-sectional design and survey to collect data. Multistage sampling was used to obtain the sample of study. Data analysis was done by using SPSS, in which Descriptive statistics and PCA were used. The study identified irrigation; livestock; aquaculture; food canteens; selling water and cold drinks; bricks making; and local brew production as the main water projects in the area. The projects contributed to the creation of employments and income. However, these projects faced the problems of weather change, lack of fuel, shortage of arable land, lack of pesticides and fertilizers and poor irrigation infrastructure. The study recommended stakeholders in water projects to diversify their economic projects; find alternative fuel sources; practice afforestation; the projects of food canteen involve health monitoring; and farmers form groups to manage their own irrigation schemes.
The level of poverty in developing economies especially Nigeria is very alarming and disturbing and this has been a source of great concern to government, policy makers and Economists all over the globe. This evil called poverty has made the United Nation to sponsor a long-term economic development program called the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Foreign direct investment according to the modernization and the vicious cycle of poverty thesis is thought to provide the needed capital for these economies to break out of the cycle of poverty. This book therefore examined the impact of foreign direct investment on poverty reduction in Nigeria from 1995 to 2010. The Ordinary Least Squares method was used to estimate the parameters of the model after conducting a unit root test via the Augmented-Dickey Fuller (ADF) to determine the stationarity of the data. This book is expected to be useful to academicians, governments, individuals and the general public.
Among the poor, women are considered the more vulnerable. Widowed, divorced or discarded by the husband is a common phenomenon among the rural poor. The government has thus introduced special SSN program to protect them. The two-year Vulnerable Group Development (VGD) program is the largest SSN program that provides in-kind transfer with development programs for selected women-headed poor family to help them get out of the poverty. This study was an attempt to provide evidence using household survey data on whether the VGD program improves beneficiary household welfare and reduces poverty. The study found that the number of participants in the program is negatively related to the poverty rate as well as the probability of falling below the poverty line. Besides, this book shades light on how the VGD program improves well-being of the targeted people. Therefore, this book will guide the development policy makers who are working on poverty issue.
The impact of trade policy on poverty explains how trade liberalisation contributed directly or indirectly to poverty and economic growth in Zambia. the study indicates that the approach of trade policy liberalisation was affected by a number of factors such as trade agreements which has created the effect of membership overlapping and therefore making it difficult for country to implement a sound competitive strategy to strengthen its export capability and improve trade investment climate. However, the weakness in trade competitive strategy has impacted the local community in the area of productivity and competitiveness . In the context of poverty reduction strategy, the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper( PRSP) has indeed ignored the role of economic integration in the poverty reduction agenda, there is need to strengthen and implement effective delivery poverty reduction strategies which have the potential to support the poor so that economic growth is improved and address the issue of inequality within the communities. In the final conclusion, the study highlights that trade liberalisation and poverty reduction are the most important elements of economic development.
The problem of poverty and unemployment remains one of the major challenges of many countries of the world especially developing countries at this 21st century. In view of this, the study examined the relationship between cassava production, employment generation and poverty reduction in Nigeria with particular reference to cassava production in Okpokwu. Using descriptive approach from primary data obtained through Focused Group Discussions, questionnaires, personal observations and an in depth interviews, the relationship between cassava production, employment generation and poverty reduction were established. The chi-square technique was used to test the result at 5% level of significance. The result clearly showed that there is a positive relationship between cassava production, employment generation and poverty reduction in Okpokwu. This implies that enhanced cassava production can be used to generate employment and reduce poverty through its various enterprises.