Replacing DTDs (Document Type Definitions) as the way in which XML documents are described and validated, XML schemas are essential for ensuring the accuracy and security of information in B2B transactions and other XML applications. This how-to guide employs extensive examples and source code to help developers and programmers get quickly up to speed on the practical application of this important technology. With in-depth explanations for each example, XML expert Mike Fitzgerald acquaints readers with coding structures, then moves to more advanced topics, including unique element and attribute values, keys, and how to use schemas with HTML. Like the other books in the series, this guide features comprehensive appendices listing all the datatypes and data facets, code indexes, and other time-saving features.
Many automatic schema matching approaches have been proposed, but the challenge is still daunting because of the complexity of schemas and immaturity of technologies in semantic representation, measuring, and reasoning.The book focuses on three challenging problems in schema matching. First, the existing approaches have often failed to sufficiently investigate and utilize semantic information imbedded in the hierarchical structure of the XML schemas. Secondly, due to synonyms and polysemies found in natural languages, the meaning of a data node in the schema cannot be determined solely by the words in its label. Thirdly, it is difficult to correctly identify the best set of matching pairs for all data nodes between two schemas.A variety of computer experiments have been conducted with encouraging results that show the proposed approaches in this book are valuable for addressing difficulties in XML schema matching.
we presented a technique to transform an XML DTD to a relational schema considering the structural aspects and the semantic aspects, such as domain constraint, not null constraint, cardinality constraints, ID constraint, and inclusion dependencies. The technique described how the various de?nitions in a given XML DTD, such as elements, attributes, parent-child relationships, ID-IDREF(s) attributes, and collection types can be mapped to entities and relationships. It described how to handle the Union types that are not present in relational model, and it showed that the XML’s ordered data model can be e?ciently supported by the unordered relational data model
Existing database systems do not provide the uniform support for both XML and Relational Data with similar storage and retrieval efficiencies. A generic data mediator provides uniform support for both XML and relational data with similar storage and retrieval efficiencies is produced; by using existing efficient schema-oblivious mapping strategies XNode and SUXCENT and free of cost available technologies: MySQL, PHPMyAdmin and PHP classes. The key to mediator approach is storing and retrieving XML documents in a relational database, providing a user interface for XML manipulation, independent of proprietorship and without doing any modification in its basic structure. After the mediator's implementation, the RDBMS becomes repository for both XML and Relational data simultaneously. The mediator has flexibility to add any proposed more efficient schema-oblivious XML mapping strategy as a new collection. The mediator can also be used as the benchmarking tool for the researchers to compare various schema-oblivious XML mapping strategies by adding a new collection. The comparative study of insertion, retrieval and query performance of these two types of mapping strategies is produced.
BidXML provides a model based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) to standardize the bidding information. As a case study, the bidding process in different State Department of Transportation (USA) was thoroughly studied. XML was selected to create this model because it is envisioned to be the predominant data exchange standard over the web for providing a universal, flexible, and open data format standard. BidXML provides a standardized way to input, modify, and exchange of bidding information by all the participants involved in the bidding process. Utilizing the XML Schema Definition (XSD) Language, the research first defined a data representation Schema called BidXML that effectively models the bidding information in an open format. Bidding information pertaining to each construction project will then be represented by individual XML document that are based on the BidXML Schema. BidXML will also facilitate exchanging the data among various players in the construction industry. Moreover, this data will be easily integrated with other software used for scheduling, estimating, and contract administration.
This book presents the solution for the data transformation from XML into ontology and the solution for integration of XML data. We propose a hybrid similarity measure based approach, that handles the distinct problems of syntactic, semantic, and schematic heterogeneity of XML data. Our similarity measure addresses both structural and semantic components and can be applied for both schema types, XSD and DTD . Due to the different targets between integration and transformation of XML data, we propose two types of similarity measures, which are similarity of elements between two schemas for data integration and similarity of elements within a schema for data transformation.
This book deals with designing and implementing of document type definition (DTD), XML schema, and the tree representation of a semantic document written in RDF/RDFS. The DTD, XML schema and the tree representation, enables the XML document writer to complete the document. Without the three above said the XML document will not be complete and will fail to achieve its usefulness. To be more precise the DTD and XML schema have a similar role to play. In fact both work exactly similarly. The reason for developing and using alternatively is to see their effects. The selective queries asked of the document centre around, MS(CS) study conducted at the COMSATS institute of Information Technology Lahore. An Elementary Introduction of SPARQL and the use thereof as to how the information can be dug out from the semantic document are introduced. SPARQL has also introduced at elementary level and some queries have been answered using SPARQL with regard to protege software.
Справочник по современным технологиям создания и обработки документов, предназначенных для опубликования в сети Интернет, – стандарту XML и его расширениям. Приведены определения структурных элементов языка разметки XML и его синтаксис, вопросы стилевого оформления XML-документов (CSS и XSL), сведения о создании гиперссылок (XLink) и идентификации ресурсов (XPointer), о каналах CDF в Интернете и WAP-pecypcax. Описание сопровождается большим количеством примеров. Дополнительно включены официальные спецификации XML, XML Schema и WML. Для широкого круга программистов и Web-дизайнеров.
With Web access becoming available through TV, handheld devices, and even phones, developers need to create sites that can be viewed from different environments, not just from the desktop. Introducing XHTML, the next generation HTML, this practical guide jumpstarts Web developers on the technology that ensures that their Web pages stay true-to-form on any available platform. Using extensive code and real-world examples, XML expert Michael Sauers teaches readers how to apply XHTML quickly and effectively without having to become XML programmers first. Readers will learn how to migrate legacy HTML documents to XHTML and create documents and applications for a variety of platforms. Like the other books in the series, an appendix listing will feature where to find updated information, a source code index, and other handy features.
This book focuses on the importance of top-down approach to teaching reading. In most reading textbooks the authors are interested in using post reading activities which are more useful for testing rather than teaching reading comprehension. Meanwhile concerning the role of background knowledge this book suggests schema theory based pre reading tasks as more effective means for activating background knowledge and enhancing reading comprehension.
Java и XML. Эти две технологии уже давно привлекают внимание разработчиков. И не зря. Они идеально подходят для создания веб-ориентированных корпоративных приложений, обеспечивают независимость от платформы, расширяемость, возможность повторного использования кода, а также поддержку стандарта Unicode. Их соединение позволяет создавать веб-сайты с динамически обновляемыми страницами, разрабатывать корпоративные приложения, снижающие затраты на совместное использование информации, и находить простые и эффективные решения проблемы переносимости данных. Автор описывает применение всего арсенала инструментов и средств XML и Java. Здесь и DTD и пространства имен, XML Schema и XPath, XSL и различные API (SAX, DOM, JDOM). Рассматривается связывание данных, разработка приложений при помощи XML-RPC и SOAP, использование систем веб-публикации (например, Apache Cocoon). Не оставлены вниманием создание веб-служб с применением SOAP, UDDI и WSDL, каналы RSS, динамические данные и XSP. Второе издание «Java и XML» дополнено главами о расширенных возможностях SAX и DOM, а также о SOAP и связывании данных. Эта книга станет незаменимым спутником для тех, кто пишет программы на Java и собирается применять XML (или планирует заниматься этим), участвует в движении peer-to-peer, разрабатывает программное обеспечение для электронной коммерции либо использует службу сообщений или веб-службы.
This book is a theoretical review as well as an empirical analysis of the effects of linguistic, formal, and content schema building activities on L2 listening and reading comprehension. In the first two chapters, the theoretical aspects of the issue are reviewed. The next three chapters elaborate on an empirical attempt to describe the nature of the relationships among the aforementioned factors. The results of the empirical analysis seem to suggest that although there are no statistically significant differences among the different types of schema building activities, they are all significantly more conducive to the development of both L2 listening and reading comprehension than the control condition. The findings of the present study may have theoretical as well as practical implications for language learners, teachers, and syllabus designers.
Studies have shown that the main difficulty faced in learning to program is related to planning rather than language structures. As possible solution to address this difficulty, this book describes an investigation into the effects of fostering a meta-schema for program design for novice programmers. A study was conducted in an introductory programming course with two groups of students. The experimental group was taught about a design strategy and special emphasis was put on design visualization. For the control group conventional teaching was applied. Also in the following lab assignment, design was emphasized for the experimental group. Analysis of the program code and the documentation of the students indicates the intervention did not influence the correctness of the programs. However, it had a positive effect on problem decomposition. Furthermore, it is observed that students have problems with effectively applying language structures. An ideal curriculum for programming would therefore foster the development of both meta-schemas (e.g. design strategy and visualization) and specialized design schemas (e.g. best practices in applying data structures and control structures).
From a viewpoint of discourse as the connecting middle ground between genre, register and schema, this book establishes meaningful links between these notions. It disambiguates the conflated relationship between genre and register by suggesting that genre texts need to be modelled out of a balance between the generic knowledge and discipline specific needs. This book also investigates the relationship between schematic and generic structure and uncovers how far RA writers are aware of the text structure they employ in their writing and indicates how these structures have been internalised as schemata.
Metadata schema is very important and should be considered in digital library. Metadata schema makes metadata interoperability in digital libraries. Standard metadata schema is needed for consistency and ensuring interoperability. We should also consider the requirements of partner library institutions for creating and developing the standard metadata schema. Without consider the requirements of those institutions, metadata interoperability is not going well. This book gives a description about the issues of standardization metadata schema and recommendations for securing interoperability among digital libraries, especially for FORDA digital libraries-Indonesia as a case study place. This book divided in five chapter. The first chapter is the introduction section. Second shapter gives the description about literature reviews. Third chapter presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter is the finding research description. The finding shows that there are several issues which create interoperability problems in the current FORDA metadata schema. Lastly, the fifth chapter presents the discussion and conclusion.
Get a complete introduction to Salt, the widely used Python-based configuration management and remote execution tool. This practical guide not only shows system administrators how to manage complex infrastructures with Salt, but also teaches developers how to use Salt to deploy and manage their applications.Written by two Salt experts, this book provides the information you need to deploy Salt in a production infrastructure right away. You’ll also learn how to customize Salt and use salt-cloud to manage your virtualization. If you have experience with Linux and data formats such as JSON or XML, you’re ready to get started.Understand what Salt can do, and get a high-level overview of basic commandsLearn how execution modules let you interact with many systems at onceUse states to define how you want a host or a set of hosts to lookDive into grains and pillars, Salt’s basic data elementsControl your infrastructure programmatically by extending Salt Master’s functionalityExtend Salt with custom modules, the Jinja templating language, and Python scripts