This book tries to depict the idea as to how WTO accession under the Ethiopian federation is going to affect the constitutional autonomy of regions. One crucial factor in understanding the role of constituent units in international trade relations is the power over treaty making and formulating policies of foreign trade together with its implementation. Ethiopia, as a federal country, currently has a constitution that confers federal officials not to have obligation to consult with regions before binding the latter to comply with WTO agreements’ non-trade regulatory constraints. As a result, state and local non-trade policy space has been subjected to sweeping new forms of international preemption. Therefore, in the process, Ethiopian federalism itself will be subjected to certain challenges which may need the articulation of plausible interactions of the federal and regional states for minimizing political risks of as well as for augmenting foreign trade by using the federal government as a proxy in acceding WTO agreements without significantly affecting autonomy of regions.
The word ‘standard’ has become a common term in all sectors of business. participants in all business undertakings do not negate the idea of having the best quality. Consumers look for a product or service with high standards. And, transactions are expected to result in the satisfaction of the parties, with a special concern that consumers need to be protected from any possible harm that would occur from the normal consumption of any goods or services. This book entitled “WTO Accession and Required Product Standards: The Case of developing countries: Ethiopia,” primarily focuses on examining one aspect of standard in trade, i.e. product standards, in the context of Ethiopia’s anticipated accession to the world trade organizations.It is organized in four chapters. An introduction to the WTO is made followed by general remarks on standards in relation to trade. The second part examines the WTO legal regime on standards. Then the issues that are of utmost concern in developing and least developed countries when the topic of product standard is raised will be discussed. Finally,the enigma of standards in the WTO for Ethiopia will be explored.
WTO helps cross border trade transactions take place predictably, freely and smoothly based on international trade rules and regulations set by the organization itself; making it the only international organization setting and dealing with global rules on international level trade transactions. Thus, this expected opportunity is the driving engine encouraging Least Developed Countries accede to WTO. Regarding the case of Ethiopia; Ethiopia is one of the many LDCs under WTO accession process, hence negotiating since 2003. Ethiopia’s major export commodity is coffee which is the backbone of the country’s overall economy.Ethiopia’s probable accession in principle will bring new market opportunity for its coffee export,the export sector might not benefit from any substantial market access if domestic supply side constraints continue to be major obstacle for trade.
As globalization spreads across the world, concerns about the industrial competitiveness of least developing countries and poverty alleviation are becoming ever more important and the infant industries argument, protectionism holds that new (immature) industries in the least developing countries should be promoted through industrial policy measures in order to allow them to grow to a point where they can fairly compete with the large matured industries established in foreign countries. otherwise, they may die before they reach a size and age to successfully compete in the global market and as many empirical evidences shows that Ethiopia’s industries are in there infancy age and they need a high degree of protection otherwise the simple Ethiopia infant domestic industries accession to the World Trade Organization is just like making a crippled man to compete in a marathon competition with a person having two legs. And also the author strongly believes on that the right industrial development of Ethiopia should always come from the strong hand of Ethiopians.
Many ethnically diversified countries favored federalism as a best means of accommodation for linguistic, cultural and territorial autonomy interests of their people. Accordingly, Ethiopia has adopted ethnic based federalism since 1991 which enabled some ethnic groups to establish their own sub-national governments (regions). Yet this system hardly became attractive for internal national minorities (i.e. an ethnic groups who forms majority in one region but minorities in another region) since the procedure of protection controlled by regional majorities and high degree of systematic assimilation. This book, therefore, examines the procedure for recognition and protection of internal minorities under Ethiopian constitutional system and how the absence of constitutional protection affects cultural, linguistic, and political rights of such groups by giving special emphasis on the case of Raya Oromo in Tigray region. It scrutinizes the issue in light with international law, Ethiopian constitution and regional constitution. The analysis would help as insight for political scientist, government officials and constitutional drafter s to conduct further research and use it as input.
The aim of this research is to assess the possible impact of the WTO on economic institutional changes, FDI inflows, and exports and imports of Vietnam. To achieve reliable and persuasive outcomes and to enhance the significance of the research, the author will employ the gravity model using the Hausman-Taylor (1981) estimator and updated figures from trustworthy sources (e.g., WTO negotiation documents of Vietnam, relevant research papers, state agencies and international organizations such as the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank (WB), etc.) for the empirical analysis in this research. This research should be especially useful to professional in international economics field, or anyone else who may be considering evaluating the impact of the WTO and FTAs on FDI flows and foreign trade of the member countries.
Looking at the evolution of the automotive industry since 2001, it is quite beneficial and important to see how the government policy affected the utilisation of FDI in China. There is increasing interest in the utilisation of foreign direct investment (FDI) on host country productivity. An extended historical case study was used to examine changes in policy, regulation and the organisation of the national management concerned with FDI. The period examined was from 2001 to 2009 of WTO accession in the way the government managed the domestic and international circumstances that impacted on FDI. This study contributed to the existing literature on the utilisation of FDI of China’s automotive industry after WTO accession. The study illustrated the merit and demerit of China’s automotive industry policies. The research highlighted the need for appreciation of government policies. The results of the study revealed a high level of China’s automotive policies and the maximum utilisation of FDI to supervise the industry. The intercultural conception and integration of operation ideas and practices are likely to come about when East meets West in an open, reflective and global context.
In this modern time, the legal academia says that establishing different layers of government needs not only division of powers but also a framework in which these layers of government interact as independent and interdependent institutions. Such system is indispensible for realization of the objectives these spheres of governance are established for. One aspect of this system is supervision by central governments over activities of subnational units. Such supervision is of a particular significance where the central government is where important laws and policies are made and the others are implementers of same, and where subnational imbalance has found a solid foundation. This book focuses on supervision by central governments in two decentralized African states with such facts in comparative perspective. It would be important to researchers, educators and students of constitutional law, federalism and intergovernmental relations, in particular.
This research studies the accession of a developing country to the World Trade Organisation on the case of Ukraine. Quantitative results are obtained by building a Computable General Equilibrium model in the mathematical programming language General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS). Four scenarios are simulated: 1) import tariffs reform; 2) improvement of exports access; 3) improvement of investment climate and 4) the scenario that combines previous three, or a full WTO accession. The results of the model show that in all scenarios there is growth of both exports and imports. By contrast, output and household consumption levels vary from scenario to scenario. The first two simulations, tariff reform and improvement of export access, show no significant change in domestic production and consumption. Thus, with expanded trade and practically the same output and consumption, Ukraine merely becomes more open and shifts to foreign trade. In the third scenario, improvement of investment climate has the most favourable results. Owning to better allocation of resources, both domestic production and consumption expand and the welfare of households increases.
In 1945 a Labour government deployed Britain's national autonomy and parliamentary sovereignty to nationalise key industries and services such as coal, rail, gas and electricity, and to establish a publicly-owned National Health Service. This monograph argues that constitutional constraints stemming from economic and legal globalisation would now preclude such a programme. It contends that whilst no state has ever, or could ever, possess complete freedom of action, nonetheless the rise of the transnational corporation means that national autonomy is now siginificantly restricted. The book focuses in particular on the way in which these economic constraints have been nurtured, reinforced and legitimised by the creation on the part of world leaders of a globalised constitutional law of trade and competition. This has been brought into existence by the adoption of effective enforcement machinery, sometimes embedded within the nation states, sometimes formed at transnational level. With Britain enmeshed in supranational economic and legal structures from which it is difficult to extricate itself, the British polity no longer enjoys the range and freedom of policymaking once open to it. Transnational legal obligations constitute not just law but in effect a de facto supreme law entrenching a predominantly neoliberal political settlement in which the freedom of the individual is identified with the freedom of the market. The book analyses the key provisions of WTO, EU and ECHR law which provide constitutional protection for private enterprise. It dwells on the law of services liberalisation, public monopolies, state aid, public procurement and the fundamental right of property ownership, arguing that the new constitutional order compromises the traditional ideals of British democracy.
Today, WTO is the largest trade organization in the world including most of the world countries. Although WTO is a world organization covering most of the world trade, it has been subject to many researches and discussions in terms of whether its impact on international trade and economies of the countries is significant or not. In this context, this book aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the WTO and the effects of membership that a nonmember country such as Azerbaijan should take into consideration. The main research question is “what kind of macroeconomic impacts are expected for Azerbaijan economy in case of its accession to WTO”. This book includes discussing trends in some macroeconomic indicators of both Georgia and Armenia as the member countries of WTO. Analyzing Georgia and Armenia economies in before-and-after WTO membership context is supposed to create a general impression about what macroeconomic impacts may be expected for Azerbaijan economy in case of its accession. This analysis has been carried out graphically and empirically.
In this book the author reveals the nature and causes of identuty reconstruction of Alle People and the nature of politicising ethnic differences in changing relatiohsips at local level in the context of ongoing state building processes. The author gives a compherensive look at historical realities and specific conditions that determined the lives of ethnic minorities in Ethiopia focusing on the effects of state policies in process of identity reconstruction and conflicts in the country. The book also give an important insights to the country's political realities which cheifly reflect continuity from past, and explain most of specific events at local levels.
The perceived impact of WTO law on the domestic regulatory autonomy of WTO Members is increasingly becoming the subject of controversy and debate. This book brings together in an integrated analytical framework the main WTO parameters defining the interface between the WTO and domestic legal orders,and examines how WTO adjudicators, i.e. panels and the Appellate Body, have construed those rules. A critical analysis identifies the flaws or weaknesses of these quasi-judicial solutions and their potential consequences for Members' regulatory autonomy. In an attempt to identify a more proper balance between WTO law and regulatory autonomy, it develops an innovative interpretation of the National Treatment obligations in GATT and GATS, drawing upon compelling arguments from legal, logic and economic theory.
State constitutional amendment procedures in most federations are flexible, involve direct popular participation and have variety of avenues. Viewed from these perspectives, state constitutional amendments in Ethiopia are rigid and solely controlled by legislatures at various levels both for initiation and ratification. The federal constitution also mandates the amendment of state constitutions to be undertaken by the state council. This may erode the state’s popular sovereignty and autonomy from designing (determining) their institutions. Even if states have gone half way in setting aside this prescription, they still made the approval of amendment of certain sections of the constitution to the federal legislature. This has its own ramification in making the amendment rigid, complex and in eroding their sovereignty. The main theme of this book is, therefore, to examine and give insight on the organs, institutions and procedures involved for initiation and ratification of state constitutional amendment. It also highlights the major shortcomings of the methods adopted like rigidity of the amendment process, its exclusionary tendency of different stakeholders.
Ethiopia has a spasmodic food security problem with in the general spectrum of other socioeconomic challenges. The country is among the most severely food insecure countries of the world characterized by high reliance on food imports and international food aid. It is such a high reliance on international food imports that triggered this study. To that end, the study used the relevant polices and laws of Ethiopia and the pertinent WTO agreements as a primary sources. The copious literature on the area of the WTO AoA and its bearing on Food Security have been used as secondary sources. The most important findings of the study include: a) the subsidies commitments to be undertaken under the WTO AoA provide a sufficient policy space to continue the existing support programs which are part of the food security strategy of the country. Thus, the Subsidies, domestic or export, provisions of the WTO AoA does not hinder a sound food security policy; b) opening of borders by lowering tariffs, which seems very likely, will represent a threat to domestic food production unless higher bound rates are negotiated.
Detailed information regarding the WTO accession process has until now only been available to the WTO Secretariat. Produced by the Secretariat, this handbook explains the process whereby governments become Members of the WTO. Analysis and comparison of the accession of specific governments, including China, is also included.
With the beginning of the collapse of the USSR, when Evgeni was 13, his family moved to Israel. Being surrounded all his life by people of diverse ethnic backgrounds, Evgeni took interest in the turbulent events happening all over the former socialist empire - the Soviet Socialist Republics became independent states, ethnic minorities in the new countries struggled (and in some places still do) to protect their interests. This book is an attempt to analyze and find patterns in the level of mobilization of minorities in the three regions of the former USSR.
The essays gathered in this collection examine the involvement of self-governing sub-national and regional actors in the law and policy-making of the European Union. State power is today exercised in the context of the complex institutional environment of the EU. But what of regions and sub-national actors? Are their interests adequately represented; can they advance them or can they,at least, protect them from unwitting or calculated damage? This book surveys the broad questions of law and political science and investigates the contribution of the EU's Committee of the Regions and also 'bottom-up' initiatives launched by the regions themselves. Given that much regional autonomy has been hard won, one would suppose that the centralising influence flowing from the EU's intrusion into the domestic settlement would be treated with extreme caution by the regions. Moreover, among the Member States there is great diversity in the patterns of political organisation adopted to cope with the tension between the centralisation of power and respect for local autonomy. Case studies including Spain, Germany and Finland reveal that there is no single consistent historical narrative. States change, as the UK's recent experience illustrates. The book offers findings that are interesting at a general level in investigating patterns of multi-level governance, but is also rich in case-specific information.
Constitutional reason of state is all about making a rational adjustment between power of the governor and rights of the governed. the modes reasons of state are manifested in different discourses whereby the government exercises its powers, such as state of emergency and limitations of rights to be exercised even in normal times. This work tries to expound how the constitution of the Federal Democratic of Ethiopia has adjusted powers and rights in such circumstances.
The ombudsman institution is a system of accountability mechanism that helps citizens to know and appreciate their rights to complain against the decision of the executive branch of the government. The Ethiopian Institution of the Ombudsman(EIO) is established in the Ethiopian constitutional order as a system of oversight and accountability mechanism over both federal and state public administration. This book enquires the legality of the mandate of EIO as an overseer over the states executive bodies and its implication on the state autonomy in the Ethiopian federation and its practical significance in bringing about good governance in the states. The book contends that the mandate of the EIO exercised over state executive organs has the tendency to undermine meaningful exercise of the right to self-governance of the states. The book also contends that the federal ombudsman institution is not an effective institutional mechanism to promote good administration in the states.