A fifteen different biphasic media were used to cultivated promastigote parasite of Leishmania donovani and compared with ordinary NNN medium, to find a cow milk agar medium can provide a good cultivation to the parasite as well as the ordinary medium, where milk is a simple, cheap and a good source of protein, carbohydrate, lipids and calcium. But milk cannot be a substituted for rabbit blood as solid phase that was given the greatest count of parasites when using it. Also, using a 10% of human urine as a liquid phase can enhance the growth rate of parasite up to eight times, this reduced the time that needed to cultivate the parasite in the ordinary NNN medium. So, using of a modified NNN medium BHU (medium that used the rabbit blood as solid phase and 10% of human urine as liquid phase) in the field of laboratory can provide a short duration to cultivate Leishmania parasite.
In Basrah ,people suffer from Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania tropica. It was noted in the recent increase in the incidence of the disease in many parts of the world including Iraq due to the emergence of new strains of chemical drug-resistant parasite or that chemicals drugs do not work immediately on parasite. So use of alternatives therapeutic for the treatment of leishmaniasis including medicinal plants in Basrah Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers and Helianthus annus which extracted from it glycosides called vicine beside of test effects therapitic of cisplatine against Leishmania donovani also Studying effecte of using culture media and vitamins as stimulater growth for Leishmania donovani. The fructose was more activity in increase number of promastigote in vitro
Leishmania donovani is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis worldwide. One of the unique features of this unicellular kinetoplastid protozoan parasite is that they have a bisubunit type IB topoisomerase unlike other eukaryotic counterparts and thus it is a potential target for anti-leishmanial therapy. Chapter 1 of this book describes in detail the effect of ATP on the type IB topoisomerase of Leishmania and is aimed for a better understanding of topoisomerase biology in this unicellular protozoan parasite. Leishmaniasis is a dreaded disease of mankind. Chapter 2 of this book describes the effect of cryptolepine on Leishmania donovani and deals with identification of new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to combat Leishmaniasis. This chapter describes how these unicellular parasites use autophagy as a survival mechanism in response to cellular stress. This book is aimed for all those who are interested in Leishmania and I hope this will also be of good reading experience for all those who have interest in biochemistry and cell biology.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar(KA) is a disease of the reticuloendothelial system caused by obligate intracellular parasite, Leishmania spp. (L. donovani, L. chagasi, L. infantum). The infective promastigotes invade the macrophages and convert into aflagellar amastigotes that survive and proliferate within the macrophages leading to progressive infection. To ensure its survival within a cell that is armed to kill invaders, Leishmania is known to downregulate macrophage activation leading to suppressed T cell function. The present study was undertaken with the objective to identify such components of Leishmania donovani that have a role in inducing a protective Th1 response. Phosphoproteins of Leishmania donovani were screened to establish their role in host-parasite interaction and ensuing cell-mediated immunity, for a possible impact on several different aspects of the disease.Macrophage and T-cell responses were studied in vitro, followed by a study of immunoprophylactic potential of selected phosphoproteins in in vivo mice model.
An efficient in vitro plant regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation protocol was described for castor (Ricinus communis L.) using meristem as explants. Shoot apex containing apical meristems were excised from 5-7 days old in vitro grown seedlings and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of cytokinins singly or in combination. Kinetin (0.50 mg/l) in combination with BAP (0.25 mg/l) produced maximum number of shoot (10.33) and shoot length (5.20 cm). For root induction, in vitro produced shoots were transferred to rooting media containing ? MS basal media with NAA. In Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing construct pBIN1F harboring nptII and cry1F gene was used. The integration of the gene was confirmed by using PCR. The transformation experiment was performed by optimizing age of the seedlings and co-cultivation duration with Agrobacterium. When the effect of the age of the seedlings and co-cultivation duration evaluated fifteen days old seedlings and co-cultivated for three days yielded the frequency of transformation 2%.
The present study focuses on multi target inhibitors search based on proteins of Trypanothione pathway. For this we had modelled TryS, TryR and TryP proteins using Homology modelling and validated, based on which docking calculations were done. In the next step, active sites were explored to allow compounds to dock. Finally, we screened common hits amongst these protein targets. Top compounds were validated and their ADME profiles were also predicted. Some ligands shown good Glide Gscore in all three protein Targets. Interaction profiles can be further utilized to build computational novel structures. The further work needed to fit the hits molecules in assays to validate hits and refine or optimize the hit molecules.
Till date, pursuit for cost effective and animal sparing colon specific bio-relevant dissolution media has been a foremost challenge facing pharmaceutical scientists over many decades.It is problematic to mimic the dynamic and ecologically diverse features of the colon in dissolution vessel.With the knowledge of enormous colonic microflora, the predominant species Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus species were cultured in 12% w/v skimmed milk powder and 5%w/v grade “A” honey. Probiotic culture was added to the dissolution media in order to test the drug release of polysaccharide based formulations. USP dissolution apparatus I/II with gradient pH dissolution method were used to evaluate the drug release from formulations meant for colonic drug delivery. Drug release from 5-fluorouracil granules and metronidazole tablets were assed under gastric, small intestine conditions and also within a simulated colonic environment involving existing rat caecal, human fecal media and compared with novel probiotic media. The present method can be successfully applied for the drug release testing of any oral formulations meant for colonic delivery.
Different sugar types were evaluated on microtuberization efficiencies of potato and sucrose was considered to be the best sugar type and 8% sucrose in media was optimized. The media with 5 uM Jasmonic acid resulted the highest number and maximum yield of microtubers than the other growth regulators used and high nitrate content media increased microtuber size. Application of 2 mg/L AgNO3 and propionic acid added media favored the in vitro microtubers formation. Microtuberization in liquid media followed by incubation at 8 h photoperiod promoted the number and fresh weight of microtubers than the other physical supports (agar based, liquid plus cotton and liquid plus sponge) and incubation (0, 8 and 16 h). The larger microtubers (0.5-0.6 cm diameter) showed significantly higher survival capacity than smaller ones (0.3-0.4 cm dia). The dormancy termination and sprouting efficiencies of microtubers were noted best in media with GA3 (100 ppm) treatment, large size of microtubers and dark incubation. The media with 5 uM Jasmonic acid showed maximum accumulation of total sugar, reducing sugar and starch. The vitamin C content of microtubers decreased with the extended storage periods.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is known to produce various dysfunctions in the body. Increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability are key features of diabetes mellitus that may result in vascular dysfunctions (Capellini et al., 2009). The sustained hyperglycemia leads to a further impairment of insulin production by ?-cells, so called glucose toxicity (Del-Prato & Marchetti, 2004). Prevention and early treatment is important because diabetes interrupts normal developments in children and carries the threat of severe complication in more active period of life (Agrawal et al., 2004). Camel milk is different from other ruminant milk as it is low in cholesterol, sugar and protein but high in minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium), vitamin A, B2, C and E and contains a high concentration of insulin and immunoglobulins (Kamal et al., 2007 and Al-Hashem, 2009). A 30-35% reduction in daily insulin dose required by patients with type I diabetes was observed in response to treatment with raw camel milk (Agrawal et al., 2002). I.e. Camel milk has an adjuvant effect to insulin therapy in control of diabetes.
This thesis is generally concerned on validating the herbal products that Ethiopian people exploit for the remedial of cutaneous leishmanisis. Especially in remote areas many people rely on traditional medication for the treatment of a number of diseases. Most treatments they employ successfully alleviate the disease but relapse and different side effects are the most common problems encountered. Scientific investigation on those treatments especially on herbal medicines could be provide a better solution for the current problem, lack of medicine for different diseases in modern world. In the study it is found out that some of the plants were successfully destroyed the promastigote stage of L. aethiopica, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. While others did not show any activity against the parasite. It requires further investigation, like trial on the amastigote stage of leishmania, use of different parts of the plants and use of different chemical for extracting purpose, to accept and reject the therapic value of those plants.
In vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) is the basic requirement of in vitro production (IVP) of embryos. The cumulus cells (CCs) surrounding the oocyte plays a key role of cytoplasmic maturation. It supplies nutrients, energy substrates and/or messenger molecules for the development of oocyte. Oocyte collection techniques have a significant role in IVM. Maturation media also plays a vital role on developmental potential of oocytes in IVP procedure. To establish a well-defined medium different serum have been extensively supplemented to the basic medium. Follicular fluid after necessary treatments could also be used as an economic supplement in the culture media (TCM-199).
This is a book about high energy physics. It is supervised by the professors of nuclear physics at faculty of Science, helwan university, Cairo, Mohammed El-Sayed El-Nagdy, Abd Allah Abd El-Salam Mohammed, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University and Badawy Mohammed Badawy Assistant Proffessor of Nuclear Physics, Reactor Physics Department, Atomic Energy Authority. This book is concerned with the study of Si-Em interactions at 3.7A GeV incident energy, a study was done to examine the effect of the projectile size on the multiplicity characteristics of the pions emitted in the forward (FHS) and backward (BHS) directions. In this study it is found that the projectile mass is the main parameters participating in the production process of those forward emitted pions, on the other hand it is found that the multiplicity of the backward emitted pions exhibits a universality in their behavior, independent of the projectile size and may give a good prediction with the modified cascade model (MCM).
Some of the published Research: 1. Rabie, Kawther A.E.; M. Abderassoul and H.H. Manaf (2007). Infuence of culutre conditions on biomass formation in callus culture of Echinacea purpurea. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 32 (8): 6249-6257. 2. Manaf, H.H. (2008). The role of potassium nitrate in alleviating detrimental effects of salt stress of soybean roots in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. Environ. Sci., 3 (4): 363-380. 3. Manaf, H.H.; Kawthar A.E. Rabie and Mona S. Abd El-Aal (2009). In vito callus formation and plant regeneration of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Annals of Agric. Sci., 54 (2): 283-289. 4. Kawthar A.E. Rabie; Mona S. Abd El-Aal and Manaf, H.H. (2010). Enhanced silymarin accumulation as influence of medium composition in cell suspension cultures of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. J. of plant production, Mansoura Univ., 1 (2): 319-332. 5. Kawthar, A. Rabie; H.H. Manaf; Hasnaa, A.H. Gouda and I.M. Shahat (2010). Influence of compost and rock amendments on growth and active ingredients of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Australian J. of Basic and Applied Sci. 4 (7): 1626-1631.
Ethiopia possesses over 2.4 million dromedary camels that stand the country third in Africa in camel population (FAO, 2010). Camels are kept, among other things mainly for milk production in the pastoral areas. They produce milk for quite longer period even during dry periods compared to cattle (Kurtu, 2003). The majority of camels in the country are found in the drier areas of the Eastern part of the country. Dromedary camels are naturally browsers,thrive on sparse pasture and produce milk where other domesticated animals would virtually starve (El Zubeir et al., 2010). Camel milk butter is believed to have some medicinal properties and laxative properties for gastrointestinal discomfort in different parts of the world (Rao et al., 1974). In the Sahara, fresh butter made from camel milk is not usually consumed rather used for medicinal purpose. Camel milk butter is also used in the preparation of nutritious and medical soups. The byproduct of butter, i.e., buttermilk, is used as a functional ingredient in many food products such as salad dressings, pasta sauces, chocolate, cheese seasonings, ice cream mixes, and yoghurt (Fox, et al., 2000).
Availability of large number of disease free genuine planting material is a major constraint in expanding area under pomegranate cultivation for which tissue culture can be explored as an alternative tool to fulfil the demand for elite planting material. In the first part of the study an efficient in vitro propagation protocol for pomegranate cv. G-137 (a superior clone of “Ganesh”) has been developed. Improper hardening of in vitro raised plantlets leads to high field mortality and poor growth of plantlets which act as a hurdle in popularization of in vitro propagation in pomegranate. So, in the second part of the study four different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) strains namely, Glomus mosseae, Acaulospora laevis, Glomus manihotis and a mixed AMF strain were used as biohardening agents to improve survival and growth of in vitro raised pomegranate plantlets. The above said AMF strains were also used in this study to enhance the performance of pomegranate hardwood cuttings in terms of high success rate and subsequently improved growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of cutting derived plants.
One of the greatest challenges of the new media in recent years and one that will intensify further as world turns to a global village is the potential impacts of New Information and Communication Technologies (NICTs) on form and content of media output,the processes through which media messages are produced and consumed.Such challenges are however, not new,and of course the history of the mass media is a history of technological development with profound social consequences and implications at every stage. And there are strong grounds that contemporary media are undergoing particularly dramatic technologically driven changes, as characterized by media interactivity, accessibility and diversity of information overload with new freedoms for the audience, users, or consumers.It is resolved that this book will be able to:centre and justify the discourse on new media and terrorism and its potential for destruction in a more global context of post-modernism, and also enhance the knowledge of media professionals, media scholars and peace practitioners who will find this research instructive as it is a timely response to the awareness and effects of media globalization.
Egypt has the largest buffalo population in the Middle East and Africa (3.717 million); they act as a major source of red meat as well as the major producer of milk with a high efficiency of converting poor quality roughage into meat and milk. In addition, buffaloes are inherently resistant to many climatic stresses. However buffaloes are reported to have low reproductive performance with inherent reproductive problems of weak/silent estrus signs, seasonal anestrous. So, attention has been towards to biotechnologies as a way for overcome these problems and moreover to augment the reproduction potential of these animals. The present book is provide a detailed research on in vitro production of buffalo embryos, studying extensively the changes occurred in the oocyte morphology and morphometry during oocyte maturation, the stages of embryonic development after fertilization and the developmental kinetics of the in vitro produced embryos. This book” In vitro buffalo embryonic development” is considered a laboratory guide for most sufficient procedures for in vitro technique.
The urban sprawl has generated demand for nutritious food especially milk, meat and milk products both at domestic and commercial level leading to intensification and commercial rearing of livestock in the peri-urban areas. This has played a pivotal role in development of livelihoods in peri-urban areas. Livestock intensification effects farming system, floriculture, horticulture,vegetable cultivation, livelihood security, rural to urban migration and other associated activities.There is an urgent need for sustainable development of livestock husbandry, farming systems, floriculture and vegetable cultivation in the peri-urban areas to ensure socio-economic development of farmers engaged in livestock husbandry.
As of the last census predictions, non-partnered women made up more than 50% of the U.S. population. This powerful and complex demographic has been largely left out of psychological scholarly inquiries into their identity formation. Research on singles in general has pointed to their marginalization and stereotyping in American culture and its media, and the propagation of marriage and romantic partnership as the ideal condition on American television. This effect is enhanced by the recent popularity of reality dating programming, which depicts a very narrow view of the single woman. The inquiry into television’s ability to shape and bolster cultural norms and change people’s attitudes and behaviors is well-documented; however, its contribution to social identity is limited. This study examines the association between viewing idealized images on television and single females’ social identity salience; specifically, how viewing portrayals of single women and romantic relationship on television contributes to the way they identify and define themselves within the group and their levels of desire to change their single status.
Leishmania, a digenetic protozoan parasite causes severe diseases in human and animals. Efficient evasion of toxic microbicidal molecules, such as reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is crucial for Leishmania to survive and replicate in the host cells. Tryparedoxin peroxidase, a member of peroxiredoxins family, is vital for parasite survival in the presence of antioxidant, hence it is one of the most important molecules in Leishmania viability and then, it may be an appropriate goal for challenging against leishmaniasis. This book, therefore, provides identification and characterization of the mentioned protein from gene to protein. The refined model shows that the core structure consists of a seven b stranded b-sheet and five a helices. The peroxidatic active site is located in a pocket formed by the residue Pro45, Met46, Thr49, Val51, Cys52, Arg128, Met147 and Pro 148. The catalytic Cys52, located in the first turn of helix aB, is in van der Waals with a Pro45, a Thr49 and an Arg128 that are absolutely conserved in all known Prx sequences. These results might be used in designing of drugs to fight an important human pathogen.