Today whole world is facing various problems, out of which one of the important problem is energy crisis. We are using fossil fuel for various purposes. We also knew the fact that fossil fuel is not renewable and it creates the problem for environment. The solution of this major problem is “Bioethanol” because it is derived from renewable natural sources which are easily available in our nature. But researches in Bioethanol is under process and we do not produces the sufficient quantity also. So it is necessary to search various sources of Bioethanol and to search various microorganisms for production of Bioethanol. We are trying to develop the technology for Bioethanol production. This work is the part of effort to solve this problem and authors believed that, this monograph may useful and helpful for various scientists which are involved in “Bioethanol Production
Fossil fuel depletion, increase in oil prices and adverse environmental effects of petroleum products have lead to sharp interest in biofuel production all over the world. The production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable and attractive energy source for transportation fuel to replace gasoline and substitute fossil fuels. Office papers due to high cellulose and carbohydrate content are potential raw materials for production of bioethanol. Termites feed on diet rich in hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin and harbour a natural mechanism which makes them able to degrade cellulose. The mechanism of cellulose degradation is aided by the various cellulolytic bacteria that are found in the gut of termites. A technology that can give an everlasting solution to the energy requirements and reduce dependence on oil producing countries is the utilization of cellulose for the production of alternate and renewable fuels for transportation. This study is not only cost effective but also environmentally beneficial due to bioremediation of urban waste.
The current study aimed at the lab scale production of bioethanol from corncob employing cellulolytic bacteria isolated from termite gut. Cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from two local termite species including Coptotermes heimi and Microtermes mycophagous. Corn cob was de-lignified. Two fold decrease in lignin and 20% increase in cellulose was obtained after pretreatment. Among six bacterial isolated CH-1 and MYC-1 were selected for their potential cellulolytic action through halo zone formation in primary screening and substrate hydrolysis during secondary screening. Temperature, pH, substrate concentration, inoculum size, surfactants, metal ions, PEG concentration, CMCase and FPase activity were optimized for CH-1 and MYC-1. Optimal bioethanol yield was 5.45 mg/ml and 5.79 mg/ml from CH-1 and MYC-1 respectively by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. 16S rDNA sequence analysis has shown homology with Bacillus cereus (CH-1) and Providencia vermicola. (MYC-1). Therefore it can be concluded that both isolates had shown potential bioconversion of agro-waste into fermentable sugars that later could be fermented to bioethanol.
This work is all about producing bioethanol as an alternative fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass used here is saccharum spontaneum; a hardy weed prevalent in all over india and subtropical climate with little or no economic value. Microorganism used here is Pichia stipitis a yeast that can degrade both hexoses and pentoses efficiently. This work is novel in its approach of using a different substrate and an efficient microbe.
I am submitting a full article to your journal on the potential of bioethanol production from coffee pulp. The result shows coffee pulp can be considered as one of the feedstocks for second-generation biofuel from agricultural wastes. The experimental result also shows that ethanol production with distilled water hydrolysis was much higher than with acid hydrolysis. We believe the paper is highly relevant to your journal considering the current global demand for alternative to fossil fuel and food security especially for developing countries like Ethiopia where such feedstock is abundant.
Lignocellulosic biomass is abundant and a renewable resource for the production of biofuel (bioethanol) by using fermentative organisms (Sacchromyces cervesiae & Fusarium oxysporum). The conversion of biomass into maximum yield of glucose is an important step for the bioethanol production but it requires optimum dilute acid treatment. Bio-Ethanol production include various steps like; acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, recovery of glucose and fermentation. The tremendous amounts of cellulose are available as municipal and vegetable wastes that can be used for the production of ethanol. Thus, there is great interest in the use of cellulosic biomass as a renewable source of energy through breakdown of sugars that further can be converted to liquid fuel through fermentation process.I am looking forward to work in a professional and competitive environment where I can put my best efforts, hard work and skills to bring up the organization and myself too. I am also a life long learner and am determined to become a knowledge professional for keeping abreast with changing technology.
The study was conducted to produce bioethanol fuel from rambutan biomass using different parameters. The effects of days, pH, temperatures, enzyme and yeast concentration and components of rambutan fruit waste on bioethanol production were investigated. From the results, the maximum yield of bioethanol in different parameters such as, pH temperatures, fermentation period, and yeast concentration was found at 5, 30°C, 2 days and 4 g/l (w/v), respectively. Viscosity, acid value and some metal content were found within the limits described by the American Standards for Testing Material. The bioethanol was analyzed and found that there was no toxic elements and acceptable for transportation fuel and followed the quality of ASTM standard. Fuel consumption was found less at 10% than 5% bioethanol and 100% gasoline. Greenhouse gas/engine emissions like CO2, CO, SO2, HC and NOX were reduced by using bioethanol. Bioelectricity was generated successfully by using bioethanol based fuel cell. The bioethanol from biomass was of good quality which generated electricity (recorded in votage an RPM by fuel cell). Waste material (biomass) can also be managed and renewed energy using this technolog.
In recent years, largely in response to uncertain fuel supply and efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, bioethanol has become one of the most promising biofuels today. It is considered as the only feasible short to medium alternative to fossil transport fuels worldwide. The market potential for bio ethanol is therefore not just limited to transport fuel or energy production but has potential to supply the existing chemicals industry e.g. pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, beverages and medical sectors. The production of bio ethanol from traditional means, or 1st Generation Biofuels is based upon from sugar crops like sugar cane or sugar beet and starch crops like corn, wheat and rice as presented in the present study. Advances in development of ligno-cellulosic technology have led to the production of 2nd Generation Bio fuels from woody biomass or waste residues from forestry. In future, bio fuel production should be further emphasized and other new cheapest sources for its production should be exploited for potential industrial products and to take a lifetime alternative of transport fuels.
Cellulases are a group of enzymes which can effectively degrade the cellulose, thus converting into glucose units which are further fermented by Sacchromyces cervisae into ethanol. These cellulases are produced by a variety of organisms like insects, bacteria and fungi. Fungi are the most potent producers of cellulases in both submerged and solid state fermentation processes. Generaly, cllulase production from fungi is time taking process i.e. their single batch is mostly completed in six to seven days of fermentation period. To overcome this long time span an attempt was made to produce cellulase from bacterial species. The present study was carried out to isolate and identify the cellulose degrading bacteria from soil samples.
Concerns over climate change effects and energy crises have become prominent in the public life over recent years. As a renewable energy, second generation biofuel becomes a potential alternative to the conventional transportation fuel. As a significant fraction of municipal solid waste, paper and cardboard waste is a potential resource for producing bioethanol without causing food crisis and land use issue. By assessing technological, economic and environmental aspects of this technology, this work has demonstrated that several pathways to bioethanol production from waste paper offer economic and environmental competitiveness with petrol. They can also offer environmentally favorable or neutral profiles when compared with the alternative waste paper management options of recycling or incineration with energy recovery. Simplistic, general statements like converting waste paper to bioethanol is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’ are not supported by this research. Instead, the detailed techno-economic and environmental profiling work here is essential to identifying the most beneficial approaches to developing valuable and environmentally favorable production of bioethanol from waste papers.
The exploration of biomass fuels encourages the reduction of world atmosphere pollution and global warming. In addition, the depletion of nonrenewable energy sources such as fossil fuels induces the developing technologies to harness new and renewable energy sources. Abundant of fruits waste can be reused for the bioethanol production. Hence, it can reduce pollution and waste material, thus helps in waste disposal management. In this research, nine parameters were studied that could affect the bioethanol production from mango waste. It was found that the bioethanol production was the highest at temperature of 30 0C and pH 5. Similarly, the highest ethanol concentration was obtained when 3 g/l of yeast used for fermentation. S. cerevisiae yeast was recognized as the best ethanol-producing strain. The bioethanol concentration was highest when the mango mash was hydrolyzed with pectinase enzyme, followed by hydrolysis using cellulase enzyme. It was found that the content of metal elements and viscosity in the bioethanol were under ASTM standard. Therefore, the bioethanol produced from mango waste was suitable to be used as engine fuel and environmetl pollution can be reduced.
The development of a biobased economy is highly dependent on efficient and sustainable refining of agroindustrial wastes for the production of fuels and energy. Recent researches on biorefinery engineering leads to the integrated and sustainable processes of bioconversion of renewable resources aiming to maximize the efficiency of abundunt and inexpensive resource utilisation. Agroindustrial wastes should be considered as raw materials for the creation of novel biorefinery concepts corresponding to the establishment of a circular economy, for instance bioethanol production. Appropriate bioethanol production design should be employed in order to screen processing options and optimum biorefining concepts. This book covers bioethanol production related to biorefinery engineering starting from the shaking flasks determining the appropriate fermentation conditions to the usage of agroindustrial wastes in bioreactors to highlight their potential to be commercialized.
This book include development of Bioethanol production theoretically and practically, designing mutants for modifying and altering the cofactor coefficient of xylose reductase gene. cloning the genes,study the effect of protein engineering, enzyme activities, kinetic parameters,fermentation of recombinant Saccharomyces serevisae and Innovative strategies for bioethanol production in addtion to, Pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass
The yeast was isolated from the extracted potato juice. The yeast isolate was identified by comparing the characteristics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reference strain (MTCC 172) and confirmed as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The growth rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures were tested by using different sugars like glucose, sucrose and fructose. Among these, glucose supported maximum growth of 0.74% at 15% concentration after 48 hours of incubation but in fructose 0.54% and sucrose 0.40%, growth will occurred at 15% concentration after 48 hours of incubation. The growth rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures were tested by using different nitrogen source (Ammonium sulphate and Urea). Among the nitrogen source, maximum cell density 1.47 was observed at 48 hours of incubation when 1000 mg of Ammonium sulphate was added. In case of Urea, maximum cell density 1.38 was observed at 48 hours of incubation. The fermentation parameters such as pH, temperature and inoculum size were optimized for enzyme hydrolyzed potato waste residues. The pH parameters are 3.5, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 was taken. Among these 5.5 were ideal for yeast fermentation.
The studies were conducted to produce bioethanol fuel from dates fruit biomass using different parameters. The effects of duration, pH, temperatures, enzyme concentration and components of dates waste on bioethanol production were investigated. The optimum yield of bioethanol at different parameters was evaluated. Viscosity, acid value and some metal content were found within the limits described by the American Standards for Testing Material (ASTM). The produced bioethanol was analyzed and found that there was no toxic elements and acceptable for transportation fuel and maintained the quality of ASTM standard. Fuel consumption was found less in 10% bioethanol than 5% bioethanol and 100% gasoline. Greenhouse gas emissions like NOx, CO2, CO, SOx, and HC were reduced by using bioethanol as fuel. This bioethanol from dates fruit biomass (waste dates/non-food materials) was of good quality which generated the petrol engine(Gen -2 car engine, Malaysia) . Besides, waste can be managed and renewed energy as well as recyclng process can be done by using this bioconversion and waste management technology.
The rising cost of fuel oil compelled the industry to search for alternative fuels and biomass and hence the production of fermentable sugars from renewable lignocellulosic waste materials, which can be used as feedstock for the production of biofuel, organic acid and animal feed. (Arunachalam,2007).Ethanol is a high octane, water free alcohol produced from renewable resources like rice husk, wheat straw, corn, wood and other biomaterials. Ethanol is most often blended with gasoline – usually as a 10 per cent mix – to create a fuel called gasohol. Ethanol blended fuels like gasohol, act as natural antifreeze, and appear to burn more efficiently in combustion engines. As well, ethanol is used commercially in producing food grade vinegar, food extracts, pharmaceutical products.In the last decade, most research has tended to focus on developing an economical and ecofriendly ethanol production process. Much emphasis is being given to the production of ethanol from agricultural and forestry residues and other forms of lignocellulosic biomass (Kadam et al,2000).
Bioethanol has been conceived as a sustainable clean future energy source. To replace the fossils' fuels, it has to be produced at large and sustainable scale, which is only possible if the cellulosic biomass is mobilized for this purpose. This book describes workable strategies of isolating and cultivating microorganisms capable of saccharifying and fermenting the abundantly available renewable resource into ethanol exemplified in this investigation by Sugarcane Bagasse. Both bacteria and yeasts capable of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at elevated temperatures appear to be good candidates for obtaining bioethanol from cellulosic biomass. Ethanol tolerance and thermoduric nature of the microbes reported here are imperative features required for exploiting them for the provision of ethanol in a single bioreactor. The protocols described can be worked out for other agro/food industrial wastes rich in soluble and hydrolyzable carbohydrates.
Biomass can be hydrolyzed to yield fermentable sugars through pretreatment, which is the primary and expensive step in conversion of biomass to bio-ethanol. Most of the pretreatment operates in batch mode, which is energy intensive, requires high capital, results in decomposition of hemicellulose, and formation of inhibitors. Considering these shortcomings, a novel biomass pretreatment method using an extruder could be a viable continuous one. This systematic study was undertaken to determine the effect of different biomass parameters such as moisture content, and particle size over a range of barrel temperature, screw speed and screw compression ratio. Statistical analyses revealed that all the independent variables had significant effect on sugar recoveries and torque requirement. Mathematical models to predict sugar recoveries from different biomass were presented. The optimal pretreatment conditions for corn stover, switchgrass, big bluestem and prairie cord grass were presented.
With the increasing gulf between the energy requirement and its limited supply create immense pressure on the conventional resources like fossil fuels, and the increasing green house gas emission is responsible for global warming, alongwith it number of people around the world are unable to access energy which is thier basic right in the present twenty-second century world. To solve all this issue the only solution is bioenergy i.e. biofuel. Bioethanol is a biofuel derived from biomass. Initially it is produced form food grains and starch based feedstock which make it commercially unviable due to costly feed stock and also create a question on our ethics as one third population of world is facing the problem of hunger and starvation. Because of these issues the best way out is to use lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. In this vary work Azolla (lignocellulosic biomass) is used as a substrate for bioethanol production and quite good results with future possibilities were obtained. This is believed that this book will become useful and helpful for various scientists who are involved in the novel and innovative research work in bioethanol production.
Kallar grass is a salt-tolerant grass. The cultivation of this grass in salt-affected areas can effectively eradicate the soil salinity and improve its quality. In Pakistan, 6.2 million ha land is salt-affected which is about 30% of agriculture land. The vast area of salt-affected wasteland available can be cultivated for fuel energy crops like Kallar grass. In lieu of the international food crisis, the bioconversion of Kallar grass to ethanol is very attractive approach, both in terms of utilization of this grass as a biofuel feedstock to meet the global energy demand and for eradication of soil salinity. This study is focused on the optimization of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process to produce ethanol. Fermentative production of ethanol from this grass can be very cost-effective.