This book provides a systematic comparison of Religious Education (RE) as it has evolved in the secondary school curriculum of Scotland and Malawi during the past four decades (1970-2010). It seeks to draw analogies and, where valid, to indicate significant points of difference regarding key issues underpinning this development between two countries existing in radically different national contexts, one Western (Scotland) and other African (Malawi). The conceptual framework of the issues described in the book is based on concepts and debates in the discourse of contemporary RE. The book argues that despite some points of difference, there is greater similarity on salient issues regarding the nature of RE in the two countries, in areas such as the need for curriculum reform, micro-politics of reform, provision in schools and status of the subject. Given the challenges the subject faces in Scotland and Malawi, the book concludes that without government intervention and support from other key stakeholders, RE will continue to be regarded as a marginal curriculum subject.
This study focuses on quality of education in higher education institutions in Ethiopia from academic and administrative perspectives. Comparatively speaking, the study is comprehensive in which the findings and recommendations would help to reshape structures and work more to make a difference, change and correction in timely manner. The author believes that, there are desirable elements in the study, which would capture the attentions of policy makers, governance of higher education institutions and other stakeholders for taking appropriate measures duly. Despite the fact that, the study is specific and focuses on three higher education institutions, its discussions, findings and recommendations would awaken other similar higher education institutions across the country. Besides his teaching profession, the author has Magazine and Newspaper publications with the following titles:Tertiary Education:Its quantity and quality in Ethiopia(2007),Ethical values and Teaching-Learning Process(2008),and Socialist system:Its Socio-political trends in the late 20th c.(1986). The author is a member of ESSSWA that enables him to contribute his part to the social endeavor in Ethiopia.
The laws of education safeguard teachers’ rights and obligations. Its sources are from the education legislations, contract law, torts, administrative and constitutional law, criminal law, employment law and human rights law. These laws govern the professional conduct of educators, administrators and educational institutions, established national systems of education and legalization of education across nations. A comparative analysis of law of education of United States and Malaysia from the common law, civil law and Islamic law perspectives would enlighten educators and administrators on their educational practices and how to handle diverse legal issues affecting them. Knowledge of the laws of education is highly recommended to teachers, principals, administrators and educational institutions for it enhances professionalism, quality assurance and educational governance in teaching and learning.
Functions in Biological and Artificial Worlds – Comparative Philosophical Perspectives
Over the years, rapid development in computer technology has engendered simulation-based laboratory(lab) in addition to the traditional real (physical) lab. Many higher education institutions adopt simulation lab, replacing some existing physical lab experiments. The creation of new systems for conducting engineering lab activities has raised concerns among educators on the merits and shortcomings of both physical and simulation laboratories. Many arguments have been raised on the differences of both labs. In this book, we discuss the current trends and key issues in engineering laboratories including remote lab.We also investigating the effectiveness of real and simulation labs from students’ perspectives on their experience conducting both laboratories exercises. Specific suggestions to develop and design engineering laboratory education were proposed, which are deemed to be useful to educators and researchers who are working on engineering laboratory education and design.
In this collection of essays, which consist of 21 chapters, emphasis is placed on the perspectives and limits of dialogism in Mikhail Bakhtin’s work, as well as on its applications in psychology, art, education and culture. In other words, the chapters of this book investigate contemporary issues and recent research approaches related to: (1) the nature of dialogism and its various dimensions or meanings that emerge from Mikhail Bakhtin’s work, (2) the breadth, flexibility and universality of Bakhtin’s thought on dialogism, through the outline of other key-words in his work (carnival, the concept of border, “superior” and “inferior” civilization, folk laughter, meaning, small and great time etc), (3) the reception of Bakhtin’s ideas both in his birthplace, Russia, and the West, (4) a comparative analysis between Bakhtin’s theoretical and methodological assumptions and several postmodern appropriations of his work, (5) a comparative analysis between the idea of Bakhtin’s dialogism and the philosophy of dialogue, (6) ethical or moral, ontological, epistemological, methodological, literary, psychological, educational, socio-historical, cultural and ecological dimensions of dialogism.
The integration of intellectual and spiritual development of young people is a major concern of education. This book is written to offer inspiration, challenge and guidelines to policy makers in Education and in Religious organisations, to teachers and principals of schools and to all concerned for the holistic education of the young. The author discusses Church teachings on Religious Education, government policy regarding religious education and worldwide challenges facing religious education in schools. It sheds light on the implementation of the Programme of Pastoral Instruction (PPI) in primary schools in Nairobi-Kenya, the attitudes and perceptions of various stakeholders, challenges facing its implementation, and possible strategies for improvement. The insights in this book can be used towards the effective implementation of any non-examinable subject that is in the curriculum for its role in the holistic education of the child.
This book considers changes in the subject Religious Education within the context of Scottish secondary schools, charting a development towards the increasing use of philosophical skills and content in the course of the last four decades. The emergent hypothesis is that Religious Education has become more philosophical as a result of changes in society (particularly secularisation); changes in education (particularly the move to more democratic and reflective pedagogy), and also as a result of the close relationship between the epistemological areas of philosophy and religious education. This book therefore evidences the emergence of a philosophical approach within Scottish RE in the context of a subject where prior to 1972, faith, not reason had been the approach. This book captures the essence of an important change in Scottish society and argues that changes in Religious Education may be barometric of this. This book is relevant not only to Religious Education specialists and academics but also anyone interested in the interface between social and educational change.
Fundamental Methods in Christian Religious Education Teaching, focuses on the essential methods that should be used when teaching Christian religious education both at the secondary school level and in a limited way at church adult class level. One issue is immediately apparent, this book is about the essential methods that should be used when teaching Christian religious education and not any other religion.
Moral and character building is the major aim of education. All of national educational policies have placed religious education at vital position and our education system has been imparting religious instruction since its inception. However, at present, the intensity of religious education in our country has become a hot issue nationally and internationally. Moral development of children through the subject Islamiyat and complete religious education given in Deeni Madaris is under question. The syllabi have been changed. It was the need of time to investigate whether religious education is supporting the moral development of children and what is the difference between moral reasoning of students of Deeni Madaris and that of public schools. The research has revealed the effect of religious education with different intensity at different stages. The book will help religious practitioners to identify optimum age level to impart religious instruction and to adopt appropriate strategies to inculcate universal moral values in children.
This study investigates the complications raised in teaching a Confessional Religious Education curriculum in a multi-religious context of Uganda’s religiously founded public schools. The thesis contends that the introduction of foreign religions in Uganda introduced a new era of competition for converts that led to religious conflicts. A denominational and divisive educational system was introduced and this was not addressed by the colonial government and the independent government since Religious Education remained Confessional. The study probes the current syllabuses, aims and content of CRE and IRE for secondary and primary schools and suggests that their main intention of promoting spiritual growth of students is inappropriate for implementation in the multi-religious schools. The thesis questions the government’s proposed exclusion of RE from the curriculum and its replacement with Moral Education. It suggests that Religious Education needs to be re-designed to address the multi-faith context. It presents a single faith syllabus with a multi-faith element as the ideal format of teaching about religion.
The study explores the teaching of Religious Education in Zambian Schools and analyses the role the subject plays in HIV/AIDS prevention. This study contends that Religious Education as a subject has a role in HIV/AIDS prevention since as a subject it has pre-eminent value in motivating the personal behaviour of the young people. The study observes that in the context of HIV/AIDS, Religious Education has the major assignment of equipping all learners, with the knowledge, skills, attitudes, customs, morals and values that will reduce the likelihood of their acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. The study also believes that the teaching of RE does enhance the Ministry of Education’s (1996: 5) new goals of education especially:‘producing a learner capable of being animated by a personally held set, of civic, moral and spiritual values. Further, Religious Education as a subject; has the potential of helping young people to avoid acquiring HIV/AIDS by exposing them to religious ideals of chastity, virginity, unselfishness and other relevant skills required in making of informed decisions. The new generation of RE teachers should have a good understanding of modern pluralistic RE.
What is Religion? In its broad sense Religion is defined as human’s striving to find God and establish friendship or union with Him. It is envisaged that every human being aspires to know God. History unveils to us that all peoples have somehow acknowledged the existence of a Supreme Being. Religion arose from the quest for God. Religion seeks to answer the many questions that human beings are obliged to ask in their day to day living. Religion gives complete answers to our deepest questions: - What is man/woman - What is the secret of creation? - Why is there human suffering? - Does God really exist? - What is upright behaviour? - What is sinful - What happens after death? - From which we take our origin and towards which we tend? - Why did God create the universe? Humankind somehow realizes its dependence on a higher power. Human beings are aware of a hidden power which lies behind the course of nature and they recognize the presence of a father figure, a Supreme Being. I invite you to learn about African understanding of religion and/or religious education.
A large number of studies both qualitative and quantitative tried to explore barriers to women''s education in developing countries. Very few studies explored the reasons for women''s low participation particularly in post-secondary education. No research has been conducted exploring women''s perceptions about the reasons for women''s law participation in post-secondary education in Bangladesh. Using a qualitative methodology and the conceptual framework of ''open-system'' theory this study explored women''s own perspectives about how multifaceted social subsystems in Bangladesh function to support and to inhibit women''s participation in post-secondary education. Study revealed that the barriers women encounter in perusing post-secondary education are vast and complex. Women face barriers from multi-level social systems such as family, financial, educational, socio-cultural, political, and governmental subsystems. Within these subsystems various factors exists that hamper women''s post- secondary education in Bangladesh. The result showed that since the barriers are multifaceted, positive collaboration of social subsystems in Bangladesh can reduce the difficulties.
Early childhood education is considered as back bone in any education system traditionally there are two types of early childhood education in the world. These are Montessori and Kindergarten system of education. This study entitled “Comparative Study of Montessori and Kindergarten System of Education in Term of Social and Language Skills of Children” focused on investigating difference between two systems. The objectives of study were to compare the both system in terms of philosophy, objectives, contents, teaching methodology, evaluation system, social and language skills of the students of both systems. It was a document and survey type study. The research was delimited to the private schools of Rawalpindi having pre-school education. The sample was comprised of ten schools and hundred students, ten students from each school. Five schools from Montessori system of Education and five from Kindergarten system of education were selected. The observational checklists were developed to check the social and language skills of children. The observational checklists were completed on the response of students by class teacher.
It is now globally accepted that children with disabilities should be educated in inclusive settings alongside their peers. Kenya is still lagging behind in keeping abreast with the global trends and developments in inclusive education. In this respect, this book focuses on some factors impeding the progress in implementation of inclusive education in Kenya. One of the highlighted factors in this book is teachers’ attitudes and values. Research has shown that teachers’ positive attitudes toward inclusion depend strongly on their experiences with learners who are perceived as “challenging”. Teacher education/training, the availability of support within the classroom, class size and overall workload are also other factors which influence teachers’ attitudes. Further, the development of enabling mechanisms such as national policies on inclusion, local support systems and appropriate forms of curriculum and assessment are important in creating the right context for the development of inclusion. Inclusion has important benefits for all children as it produces schools with more enriching learning environments where diversity is viewed as a positive force which must be celebrated.
Education is a continuous and creative process. It aims to develop the capacities latent in human nature and to co-ordinate their expression for the enrichment and progress of society, by equipping people with spiritual, moral and material knowledge. It is an absolutely basic necessity for an individual and national prosperity and development. It is widely recognized that a country that invests heavily in education for all its children is laying the foundations for long-term and sustainable growth. Thus education in terms of the knowledge, qualities, skills, attitudes, and capacities that enable individuals to become conscious subjects of their growth and active responsible participants in a systematic process of building a new world order. Among all forms of education, the higher education has an exceptional role in producing skilled manpower in various sectors of world economies.Higher education is one of the most important activities organized in modern societies. It creates a demanding but rewarding environment in which individuals may realize their creative and intellectual potential.
My father told me that “nothing can be more valuable to earn than education”. Although the challenges faced during the preparation of this study seemed at one point immense, however, my supervisor and mentor, Dr. Muhammad Rashid, has been a great supporter and provided me with the vision, knowledge, and guidance to successfully complete this study. The study aims at (1) to investigate the value of university education relative to high school education, and (2) to compare the value of a university degree from a private university relative to a university degree from a public university. Despite the paucity of data and other limitations which restrict generalization of the results of the study, this report has proposed a framework to comparatively analyze the value of education. Given time and adequate funding, a comprehensive study, based on the previously proposed framework, can be undertaken in the future.
The type of leader needed to guide the Christian church in serving the world has changed dramatically over the past century. As a result, seminaries face the task of adapting long-held models for religious leadership training of students. Many have argued that seminary training is too tied to systematic and rationalistic perspectives, both of which are products of the Enlightenment. Dependency on these perspectives often leaves very little room for the spiritual development of future Christian leaders. One of the approaches to curricular reform taken by seminaries is that of integrating Spiritual Formation activities into the traditional M.Div. degree. The author presents a three-fold model of academia, praxis, and spiritual growth as attainable areas of reform for seminary curricula. This new model seeks to move beyond the debate surrounding the academic verses practical aspects of a seminary education to suggest a more effective way of educating and training future pastors and Christian leaders.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to reveal the perspectives of leaders in academic business units/divisions regarding their ability to create and implement effective strategic plans. These individuals, who have been exposed in either their educational or experiential background to the models and practices of strategic planning, should be the expert in pulling together working strategic plans for their institutions. The data were collected from the higher education business unit leaders focusing on open ended questions in five topical areas: (1) education/experience, (2) accountability and transparency, (3) process and framework, (4) achievement of successful plans, and (5) budget integration. The researcher addressed limitations and challenges in each area. This research explored evidence of actual use of models found in literature, the extent to which they are used, and evidence of the successful implementation by leaders. Four emergent themes were the basis of four grounded theories for a strategic plan model in academia.