Though the deep interior of the Earth (and other terrestrial planets) is inaccessible to humans, we are able to combine observational, experimental and computational (theoretical) studies to begin to understand the role of the deep Earth in the dynamics and evolution of the planet. This book brings together a series of reviews of key areas in this important and vibrant field of studies. A range of material properties, including phase transformations and rheological properties, influences the way in which material is circulated within the planet. This circulation re-distributes key materials such as volatiles that affect the pattern of materials circulation. The understanding of deep Earth structure and dynamics is a key to the understanding of evolution and dynamics of terrestrial planets, including planets orbiting other stars. This book contains chapters on deep Earth materials, compositional models, and geophysical studies of material circulation which together provide an invaluable synthesis of deep Earth research. Readership: advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers in geophysics, mineral physics and geochemistry.
This easy accessible textbook provides an overview of solar to electric energy conversion, followed by a detailed look at one aspect, namely photovoltaics, including the underlying principles and fabrication methods. Professor Wolf, an experienced author and teacher, reviews such green technologies as solar-heated-steam power, hydrogen, and «artificial leaf» approaches, as well as nuclear fusion. Throughout the book, carefully chosen, up-to-date examples are used to illustrate important concepts and research tools. The opening chapters give a broad and exhaustive survey of long term energy resources, reviewing current and potential types of solar driven energy sources. The core part of the text on solar energy conversion discusses different concepts for generating electric power, followed by a profound presentation of the underlying semiconductor physics and rounded off by a look at efficiency and third-generation concepts. The concluding section offers a rough analysis of the economics relevant to the large-scale adoption of photovoltaic conversion with a discussion of such issues as durability, manufacturability and cost, as well as the importance of storage. The book is self-contained so as to be suitable for students with introductory calculus-based courses in physics, chemistry, or engineering. It introduces concepts in quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, plus the solid state and semiconductor junction physics needed to attain a quantitative understanding of the current status of this field. With its comments on economic aspects, it is also a useful tool for those readers interested in a career in alternative energy.
The definitive guide to the science of solar energy You hold in your hands the first, and only, truly comprehensive guide to the most abundant and most promising source of alternative energy—solar power. In recent years, all major countries in the world have been calling for an energy revolution. The renewable energy industry will drive a vigorous expansion of the global economy and create more «green» jobs. The use of fossil fuels to power our way of living is moving toward an inevitable end, with sources of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being fiercely depleted. Solar energy offers a ubiquitous, inexhaustible, clean, and highly efficient way of meeting the energy needs of the twenty-first century. This book is designed to give the reader a solid footing in the general and basic physics of solar energy, which will be the basis of research and development in new solar engineering technologies in the years to come. As solar technologies like solar cells, solar thermal power generators, solar water heaters, solar photochemistry applications, and solar space heating-cooling systems become more and more prominent, it has become essential that the next generation of energy experts—both in academia and industry—have a one-stop resource for learning the basics behind the science, applications, and technologies afforded by solar energy. This book fills that need by laying the groundwork for the projected rapid expansion of future solar projects.
The second edition of a modern introduction to the chemistry and physics of solids. This textbook takes a unique integrated approach designed to appeal to both science and engineering students. Review of 1st edition “an extremely wide-ranging, useful book that is accessible to anyone with a firm grasp of high school science…this is an outstanding and affordable resource for the lifelong learner or current student.” Choice, 2005 The book provides an introduction to the chemistry and physics of solids that acts as a foundation to courses in materials science, engineering, chemistry, and physics. It is equally accessible to both engineers and scientists, through its more scientific approach, whilst still covering the material essential to engineers. This edition contains new sections on the use of computing methods to solve materials problems and has been thoroughly updated to include the many developments and advances made in the past 10 years, e.g. batteries, solar cells, lighting technology, lasers, graphene and graphene electronics, carbon nanotubes, and the Fukashima nuclear disaster. The book is carefully structured into self-contained bite-sized chapters to enhance student understanding and questions have been designed to reinforce the concepts presented. The supplementary website includes Powerpoint slides and a host of additional problems and solutions.
In modern science, including theoretical physics, as in the early classical mechanics, the unnatural reversible time of Newton, based on the medieval concept of geometric time by Nicholas Oresme, is still used. This “original sin” of natural sciences has unintended consequences and creates a set of paradoxes and methodological problems for science. The book explores two new models of essentially irreversible time – decelerating cosmological time and irreversible discrete time of a microcosm. It discusses recent astronomical observations that reveal evidence of the cosmological deceleration of the pace of time in the distant cosmos, in the solar system and on earth. The structure of the model of irreversible discrete time of a microcosm, as considered in the book, allows for the existence of both time and anti-time. In particular, the model predicts new uncertainty relations and violation of the mirror symmetry of the integral internal parity of the entire population of micro particles that correspond to current studies of elementary particle physics.
Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionality of circuits has increased. This book consists of five chapters covering the chemicals and sequences used in processing, from cleaning to etching, the role and impact of their purity, along with the materials used in “Front End Of the Line” which corresponds to the heart and performance of individual transistors, then moving on to the “Back End Of the Line” which is related to the interconnection of all the transistors. Finally, the need for specific functionalization also requires key knowledge on surface treatments and chemical management to allow new applications. Contents 1. Chemistry in the “Front End of the Line” (FEOL): Deposits, Gate Stacks, Epitaxy and Contacts, François Martin, Jean-Michel Hartmann, Véronique Carron and Yannick Le Tiec. 2. Chemistry in Interconnects, Vincent Jousseaume, Paul-Henri Haumesser, Carole Pernel, Jeffery Butterbaugh, Sylvain Maîtrejean and Didier Louis. 3. The Chemistry of Wet Surface Preparation: Cleaning, Etching and Drying, Yannick Le Tiec and Martin Knotter. 4. The Use and Management of Chemical Fluids in Microelectronics, Christiane Gottschalk, Kevin Mclaughlin, Julie Cren, Catherine Peyne and Patrick Valenti. 5. Surface Functionalization for Micro- and Nanosystems: Application to Biosensors, Antoine Hoang, Gilles Marchand, Guillaume Nonglaton, Isabelle Texier-Nogues and Francoise Vinet. About the Authors Yannick Le Tiec is a technical expert at CEA-Leti, Minatec since 2002. He is a CEA-Leti assignee at IBM, Albany (NY) to develop the advanced 14 nm CMOS node and the FDSOI technology. He held different technical positions from the advanced 300 mm SOI CMOS pilot line to different assignments within SOITEC for advanced wafer development and later within INES to optimize solar cell ramp-up and yield. He has been part of the ITRS Front End technical working group at ITRS since 2008.
This textbook introduces the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. Semiconductor devices have made a major impact on the way we work and live. Today semiconductor p-n junction diode devices are experiencing substantial growth: solar cells are used on an unprecedented scale in the renewable energy industry; and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are revolutionizing energy efficient lighting. These two emerging industries based on p-n junctions make a significant contribution to the reduction in fossil fuel consumption. This book covers the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes – solar cells and LEDs – together with quantitative coverage of the physics of the p-n junction. The reader will gain a thorough understanding of p-n junctions as the text begins with semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. Treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures is also presented in a readable manner. Topics are divided into the following six chapters: • Semiconductor Physics • The PN Junction Diode • Photon Emission and Absorption • The Solar Cell • Light Emitting Diodes • Organic Semiconductors, OLEDs and Solar Cells Containing student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout, this textbook is intended for senior level undergraduate students doing courses in electrical engineering, physics and materials science. Researchers working on solar cells and LED devices, and those in the electronics industry would also benefit from the background information the book provides.
The first book on the innovative study of biointerfaces using biophysical chemistry The biophysical phenomena that occur on biointerfaces, or biological surfaces, hold a prominent place in the study of biology and medicine, and are crucial for research relating to implants, biosensors, drug delivery, proteomics, and many other important areas. Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces takes the unique approach of studying biological systems in terms of the principles and methods of physics and chemistry, drawing its knowledge and experimental techniques from a wide variety of disciplines to offer new tools to better understand the intricate interactions of biointerfaces. Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces: Provides a detailed description of the thermodynamics and electrostatics of soft particles Fully describes the biophysical chemistry of soft interfaces and surfaces (polymer-coated interfaces and surfaces) as a model for biointerfaces Delivers many approximate analytic formulas which can be used to describe various interfacial phenomena and analyze experimental data Offers detailed descriptions of cutting-edge topics such as the biophysical and interfacial chemistries of lipid membranes and gel surfaces, which serves as good model for biointerfaces in microbiology, hematology, and biotechnology Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces pairs sound methodology with fresh insight on an emerging science to serve as an information-rich reference for professional chemists as well as a source of inspiration for graduate and postdoctoral students looking to distinguish themselves in this challenging field.
The fun, easy way to get up to speed on biophysics concepts, principles, and practices One of the most diverse of modern scientific disciplines, biophysics applies methods and technologies from physics to the study of biological systems and phenomena, from the human nervous system to soil erosion to global warming. What are the best options for satisfying the world's growing energy demands? How can we feed the world's growing population? How can we contain, or reverse, global warming? How can we vouchsafe a plentiful supply of potable water for future generations? These are among the critical questions to which biophysicists work to provide answers. Biophysics courses are increasingly taken by students of biology, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, statistics, bioengineering, neuroscience, computer science, pharmacology, agriculture,and many more Provides a friendly, unintimidating overview of the material covered in a typical college-level biophysics course A one-stop reference, course supplement and exam preparation tool for university students currently enrolled in an introductory biophysics courses An indispensable resource for those studying the natural sciences, biological sciences, and physics, as well as math, statistics,computer science, pharmacology and many other disciplines The current job market for people well versed in biophysics is very strong, and biophysics is currently listed as one of the fast-growing occupations in the North America
The working tools of the physical sciences, expertly organized into one volume Covering the basic concepts and working tools in the physical sciences, this reference is a unique, indispensable guide for students and researchers in chemistry, physics, and related disciplines. Everyone from novices to experienced researchers can turn to this book to find the essential equations, theories, and working tools needed to conduct and interpret contemporary research. Expertly organized, the book. Summarizes the core theories common to chemistry and physics Introduces topics and techniques that lay the foundations of instrumentation Discusses basic as well as advanced instrumentation and experimental methods Guides readers from crystals to nanoparticles to single molecules Readers gain access to not only the core concepts of the physical sciences, but also the underlying mathematics. Among the topics addressed are mechanics, special relativity, electricity and magnetism, quantum chemistry, thermodynamics, electrochemistry, symmetry, solid state physics, and electronics. The book also addresses energy and electrical sources, detectors, and algorithms. Moreover, it presents state-of-the-technology instrumentation and techniques needed to conduct successful experiments. Each chapter includes problems and exercises ranging from easy to difficult to help readers master core concepts and put them into practice. References lead to more specialized texts so that readers can explore individual topics in greater depth. The Physical Chemist's Toolbox is recommended not only as a general reference, but also as a textbook for two-semester graduate courses in physical and analytical chemistry.
For students who just need to know the vital concepts of physics, whether as a refresher, for exam prep, or as a reference, Physics Essentials For Dummies is a must-have guide. Free of ramp-up and ancillary material, Physics Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only. It provides discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in an introductory physics course, from force and motion to momentum and kinetics. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical physics concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as well as for adult learners headed back to the classroom who just need a refresher of the core concepts. The Essentials For Dummies Series Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.
This book covers in-depth the various polymers that are used for sensors and actuators from the vantage point of organic chemistry. Since many chemists may not be familiar with the physics and operational specifics of sensors, the book has a general chapter dealing with the overall physics and basic principles of sensors. Also included are methods of fabrication, as well as information on smart textiles, actuators, and the processing of data. The range of sensors covered include humidity, temperature, chemical, mechanical, optical, electrode, electronic nose, switchable devices, biosensors, and others.
Written by a team of European experts in the field, this book addresses the physics, the principles, the engineering methods, and the latest developments of efficient and compact ultrafast lasers based on novel quantum-dot structures and devices, as well as their applications in biophotonics. Recommended reading for physicists, engineers, students and lecturers in the fields of photonics, optics, laser physics, optoelectronics, and biophotonics.
Filling the gap for a book covering vibronic, nonadiabatic and diabatic couplings as well as radiationless processes in context, this monograph compiles classic and cutting-edge work from numerous researchers into one handy source. Alongside a description of radiationless processes in statistical large molecules and calculational methods for intramolecular distributions, the authors also investigate the nuclear coordinate dependence of matrix elements. Whole chapters are devoted to the mathematical description of the lifetime and decay of a prepared states as well as miscellaneous applications. The text is supplemented by a number of appendices for optimum usability. With its integration of the necessary mathematical rigor, this is primarily intended for graduate students in theoretical physics and chemistry, but is also indispensable reading for those working in molecular physics, physical chemistry and laser physics.
Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition helps make quantum physics understandable and accessible. From what quantum physics can do for the world to understanding hydrogen atoms, readers will get complete coverage of the subject, along with numerous examples to help them tackle the tough equations. Compatible with classroom text books and courses, Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition lets students study at their own paces and helps them prepare for graduate or professional exams. Coverage includes: The Schrodinger Equation and its Applications The Foundations of Quantum Physics Vector Notation Spin Scattering Theory, Angular Momentum, and more Your plain-English guide to understanding and working with the micro world Quantum physics – also called quantum mechanics or quantum field theory – can be daunting for even the most dedicated student or enthusiast of science, math, or physics. This friendly, concise guide makes this challenging subject understandable and accessible, from atoms to particles to gases and beyond. Plus, it's packed with fully explained examples to help you tackle the tricky equations like a pro! Compatible with any classroom course – study at your own pace and prepare for graduate or professional exams Your journey begins here – understand what quantum physics is and what kinds of problems it can solve Know the basic math – from state vectors to quantum matrix manipulations, get the foundation you need to proceed Put quantum physics to work – make sense of Schrödinger's equation and handle particles bound in square wells and harmonic oscillators Solve problems in three dimensions – use the full operators to handle wave functions and eigenvectors to find the natural wave functions of a system Discover the latest research – learn the cutting-edge quantum physics theories that aim to explain the universe itself
Providing a solid theoretical background in photon-matter interaction, Nonrelativistic Quantum X-Ray Physics enables readers to understand experiments performed at XFEL-facilities and x-ray synchrotrons. As a result, after reading this book, scientists and students will be able to outline and perform calculations of some important x-ray-matter interaction processes. Key features of the contents are that the scope reaches beyond the dipole approximation when necessary and that it includes short-pulse interactions. To aid the reader in this transition, some relevant examples are discussed in detail, while non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics help readers to obtain an in-depth understanding of the formalisms and processes. The text presupposes a basic (undergraduate-level) understanding of mechanics, electrodynamics, and quantum mechanics. However, more specialized concepts in these fields are introduced and the reader is directed to appropriate references. While primarily benefiting users of x-ray light-sources, the material is equally of relevance to researchers in various disciplines, such as life sciences, biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry that plan on applying these new facilities in their respective fields.
WINNER of the 2013 PROSE Award in Chemistry & Physics This latest edition enables readers to master new classes of organometallic compounds and syntheses A popular resource used by synthetic organic chemists around the world, this book enables readers to conduct seamless synthetic reactions involving key organometallics. Each reaction is set forth in the book's acclaimed recipe-style format so that readers can easily replicate the results in their own labs. Moreover, each chapter has been written by a world leader in the field of organometallics in organic synthesis. These authors offer hands-on guidance and practical examples illustrating the preparation of organometallics and its application in organic synthesis. This Third Manual of Organometallics in Synthesis features completely new content and topics, with an eye towards providing researchers with the most useful and practical reference on the synthesis of organometallics. Organized into chapters by type of organometallic compound, the book covers: Organoalkali chemistry Organomagnesium and organozinc chemistry Organosilicon and relating organotin chemistry Organoiron chemistry Organopalladium chemistry Within each chapter, readers will find background information to learn more about the class of organometallics as well as mechanistic considerations. The authors thoroughly discuss the various methods of preparing the organometallic compounds presented in the book and outline their uses in synthetic reactions. In addition to current applications, the authors explore future research opportunities for each organometallic class. References at the end of each chapter enable readers to explore all the topics in greater depth. More and more industrial processes rely on organometallic chemistry. As a result, readers will find this book's step-by-step instructions essential in such fields as natural product synthesis, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, biotechnology, polymers, and materials science.
A practical guide to the basic physics that radiation protection professionals need A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided. Coverage includes: The atom as an energy system An overview of the major discoveries in radiation physics Extensive discussion of radioactivity, including sources and materials Nuclear interactions and processes of radiation dose Calculational methods for radiation exposure, dose, and shielding Nuclear fission and production of activation and fission products Specialty topics ranging from nuclear criticality and applied statistics to X rays Extensive and current resource data cross-referenced to standard compendiums Extensive appendices and more than 400 figures This complete discussion of the basic concepts allows readers to advance their professional skills.
Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids addresses the mechanics and physics of deformable porous materials whose porous space is filled by one or several fluid mixtures interacting with the solid matrix. Coussy uses the language of thermodynamics to frame the discussion of this topic and bridge the gap between physicists and engineers, and organises the material in such a way that individual phases are explored, followed by coupled problems of increasing complexity. This structure allows the reader to build a solid understanding of the physical processes occurring in the fluids and then porous solids. Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids offers a critical reference on the physics of multiphase porous materials – key reading for engineers and researchers in structural and material engineering, concrete, wood and materials science, rock and soil mechanics, mining and oil prospecting, biomechanics.
Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the development of new functional materials in areas such as energy, catalysis and electronic materials. This revised edition of Basic Solid State Chemistry has been completely rewritten and expanded to present an up-to-date account of the essential topics and recent developments in this exciting field of inorganic chemistry. Each section commences with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing seamlessly to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. This new Student Edition includes the following updates and new features: Expanded coverage of bonding in solids, including a new section on covalent bonding and more extensive treatment of metallic bonding. Synthetic methods are covered extensively and new topics include microwave synthesis, combinatorial synthesis, mechano-synthesis, atomic layer deposition and spray pyrolysis. Revised coverage of electrical, magnetic and optical properties, with additional material on semiconductors, giant and colossal magnetoresistance, multiferroics, LEDs, fibre optics and solar cells, lasers, graphene and quasicrystals. Extended chapters on crystal defects and characterisation techniques. Published in full colour to aid comprehension. Extensive coverage of crystal structures for important families of inorganic solids is complemented by access to CrystalMaker® visualization software, allowing readers to view and rotate over 100 crystal structures in three dimensions. Solutions to exercises and supplementary lecture material are available online. Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is a must-have textbook for any undergraduate or new research worker studying solid state chemistry.