Awareness and early identification of periodontal diseaseIn diabetic patients is necessary to improve the quality of life, as treating chronic periodontal infections is essential for managing diabetes and to prevent or minimize the systemic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy,fatigue, weakness, memory loss, cardiovascular disease and need for amputations, periodontal infection and tooth loss.
One adult in ten will have Diabetes by 2030. Number of people living with diabetes was 366 million in 2011 which is expected to rise to 522 million by 2030. This equates to roughly three new cases every ten seconds or almost ten million per year. Between 2010 and 2030, there will be a 69% increase in number of adults with diabetes in developing countries and a 20% increase in developed countries. Diabetes mellitus is considered to be one of a rank of free radical diseases which propagates complications with increased free radical formation. Diabetic nephropathy (a micro-vascular complication) is the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). If untreated, 80% of people who have type-1 diabetes and microalbuminuria will progress to overt nephropathy whereas 20-40% of those with type-2 diabetes over a period of 15 years will progress. It is concluded that diabetic patients suffer more from oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is still higher in diabetic patients with nephropathy complication than patients without nephropathy.
this book include complete description of a practical study done to reveal correlation between serum resistin levels with insulin resistance and severity of microangiopathy in type II diabetes mellitus. this book also try to declare debates arising about: Obesity and its relation to type II dabetes mellitus. Could resistin (the newly discovered hormone)be a link between obesity and type II diabetes mellitus? Relation between resistin and retinopathy, one of the most compromising diabetic complications.
Oral manifestations of type 2 diabetes mellitus are devastating which include gingival and periodontal diseases, bone loss, dental caries, alterations in salivary flow and others. A large evidence base suggests that diabetes is associated with an increased prevalence, extent and severity of gingivitis and periodontitis. The risk of developing periodontitis may be greater in patients with diabetes who have poor glycemic control than that in patients with well-controlled diabetes. Dentists should be aware of the potential influence that poor glycemic control has on the periodontium of patients with diabetes and should also recognize that patients with well-controlled diabetes can have periodontal diseases just as patients with poorly controlled diabetes may have a healthy periodontium.
Diabetes is a progressive and life-threatening disease with potentially devastating consequences for health. The associated complications are retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, altered wound healing and periodontal disease. Conditions which exhibit altered tryptophan metabolism are patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, renal failure, hypertension or diabetes and periodontal disease. The role of metabolites of tryptophan via kynurenine pathway has been speculated in type 2 diabetes due to its anti-insulin action. In this study the salivary levels of tryptophan and its metabolites were estimated to assess their impact on the severity of periodontal disease in diabetic individuals by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. This study showed that a relation existed between severity of periodontal disease and levels of salivary tryptophan and its metabolites. This may add an insight towards the development of periodontal disease in type 2 Diabetes mellitus individuals and kynurenergic agents may act as new treatment modalities for such cases.
Because of the distribution of diabetes mellitus and the little studies that concerns by subjects suffer from diabetes mellitus especially type II and relationship with gastrin hormone in Iraq, so this study was assed the effect of the long term glycemic control by measuring glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), BMI, lipid profile and to find the risk factors for developing microalbuminuria and consequence nephropathy in patients with type II diabetes, also to find the effects of diabetic mellitus type II on the levels of gastrin and thyroid hormones.
Micronutrients like calcium and iron play an essential role in regeneration, for coping with oxidative stress and for an adequate immune response. Hence, these elements are essential for maintaining health throughout life. Micronutrients can cause diseases through deficiency, imbalance, or toxicity. Studies have shown that elevated Ca and Fe levels may be a contributing factor in many inflammatory conditions. Diabetes mellitus has been found to be a risk factor for periodontal disease and is a strong example of how systemic health and oral health are closely related. Chronic periodontitis, the most common form of periodontal disease found in diabetic patients, is an inflammatory infection caused by bacteria that affects the supporting tissues of the teeth. It is irreversible and involves the loss of gingival attachment and decreased bone levels. Minerals in the blood would show a reduction or exaggeration according to the intensity of pathogenicity. Excess level of calcium and iron in the serum are associated with an increased alveolar bone loss and oxidative stress which can predispose an individual to the risk of developing periodontitis leading to various diabetes complications.
An existence of complex interrelations among hypertriglyceridemia, type II diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia is well documented. This may suggest that a well prepared study is an urge to define clearly these interrelations among those different mentioned terms and then expand the study to find out their effect on the liver enzyme ALT (Alanin Amino transferase) through its association with Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The study is conducted in four parts, each will discuss one issue that is declared through measuring: The effect of high serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol on Glucose elevation in human serum. The effect of high serum Cholesterol and Glucose on Triglyceride elevation in human serum. The effect of high serum Triglyceride and Glucose on Cholesterol elevation in human serum. ALT elevation in association with Triglyceride, Cholesterol and Glucose elevation in human Serum. This book is prepared for those in the medical field interested in finding out better understanding to these deep interrelations among glucose, cholesterol, and Triglyceride elevations and how they can be associated with each other.
: The past two decades have seen an explosive increase in the number of people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus worldwide, particularly type 2 diabetes (T2D), which is found associated with modern lifestyle, abundant nutrient supply, reduced physical activity, and obesity. Actually, between 60 and 90% of cases of T2D now appear to be related to obesity. Numerous studies have shown that insulin resistance precedes the development of hyperglycemia in subjects that eventually develop T2D. There are lots of chemical agents available to control and to treat diabetic patients, but total recovery from diabetes has not been reported up to this date. Alternative to these synthetic agents, plants provide a potential source of hypoglycemic drugs and are widely used in several traditional systems of medicine to prevent diabetes. Several natural compounds have been investigated for their beneficial use in different types of diabetes.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is becoming an epidemic, gradually affecting even the younger generation. Long standing Hyperglycemia can be hazardous to several vital organs increasing morbidity & mortality. Type II DM is more common among people worldwide due to development of Insulin resistance in cells leading to diminished glucose uptake & increased blood glucose levels. Many factors have been reasoned out including Sedentary Lifestyle & Inactivity for Type II DM. Diabetics are highly susceptible to Musculoskeletal Disorders owing to glycation & shortening of articular & peri-articular tissues. Thus, flexibility training by Passive Static Stretching program plays a significant role in maintaining & restoring joint mobility as well as improving muscle function. This book establishes the effectiveness of Passive Static Stretching in achieving better Glycemic Control and improving flexibility in people suffering from Type II DM. Passive Static Stretching can also benefit bed ridden or critically ill patients of Type II DM to improve their Quality of Life.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders marked by high levels of blood glucose due to defects in insulin production, insulin action or both. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by infection and may subsequently lead to tooth loss if left untreated. Adult patient with periodontal disease with uncontrolled high blood glucose level show more severe bone loss and periodontal abscess may occur more frequently.The majority of clinical and epidemiological evidence demonstrates that individuals with diabetes tend to have a higher prevalence and more severe/rapidly progressing forms of periodontitis. Severe periodontal infections are associated with poor glycemic control and exacerbated diabetes-induced hyperglycemia. Diabetes Mellitus complications occur due to the contribution of reactive oxygen free radicals.
The influence of diabetes mellitus has its effect on general health including the oral health. Among all the systemic conditions, diabetes is the strongest risk factor for periodontitis, leading to increase prevalence, severity, and progression of the disease. Periodontal disease is considered to be the sixth complication of diabetes. The diabetic state impairs the gingival fibroblast synthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycan, enhances crevicular fluid collagenolytic activity, results in the loss of periodontal fibres, loss of the alveolar supporting bone, loosening and finally exfoliation of the teeth. Research has demonstrated the presence of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontal pockets in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, compared with people without the condition or those with well controlled diabetes, resulting in significant periodontal destruction with an equivalent bacterial challenge. Oral hygiene of the patients with diabetes must be optimised to prevent further stimulation of an already activated host response. In this book we have reviewed the relationship of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia and altered metabolism of lipid, protein and carbohydrate. In diabetes there is total or subtotal deficiency of insulin along incetine defice.Insulin and many oral hypoglycemic drugs and are available for the treatment of Type II still target HbA1c is not achived. Vildaglipton selective inhibitor of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4), the enzyme responsible for the rapid degradation of circulating Glucagon - like Peptide-1.It improves islet function in patients with type-2 diabetes by increasing both ? and ? cell responsiveness to glucose and decrease fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial glucose.Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first-line hypoglycaemic drug worldwide, but due to the progressive worsening of blood glucose control during the natural history of type-2 diabetes, combination therapy usually becomes necessary.Therefore, it was of interest to ascertain the efficacy and tolerability of Vildagliptin, Metformin alone and in combination of both in type-2 diabetic patients.We got encouraging result with combination.
Diabetes is rapidly emerging as a major health care problem in India, especially in urban areas with higher prevalence rate. Particularly management of Type II Diabetes Mellitus becomes very costly in the long run. There is a need to recognize cost effective management strategies for the disease, of particular interest in this regard is Yoga that has been widely used in India. The main objective of the study was to explore the affects of Yoga on both clinical and psychological outcomes in diabetic patients. An uncontrolled pre-post design was adopted wherein all subjects practice yoga for a specified period of time (40 days) and the change is measured from baseline to post intervention. The study considered data collected from 35 participants with a mean age of 50.34 (±8.38) who have successfully completed the 40 days yoga intervention. Data was also collected from 10 participants who practiced yoga for an additional 40 days. The clinical outcome measures included are Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), Total Cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and Body Mass Index (BMI). General Wellbeing of the subjects was considered as the psychological parameter.
This monograph considers well-known biochemical and pathophysiological data in terms of diabetes mellitus type 2 as a disease characterized primarily violation of energy metabolism of cells in which the main actor and conductor of «pathogenic ensemble» is endogenous cortisol. From this perspective, explains all the manifestations of diabetes mellitus type 2 and mechanisms for the development of complications. The new theory is based on fundamental universally recognized facts and does not contradict the existing experimental and clinical data.
Vascular endothelial growth factor a 46 KD homodimeric glycoprotein is an endothelial – specific growth factor that is essential for angiogenesis Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates interstitial collagenase production, Von Willebrand Factor release, and enhanced procoagulant activity. It induces permeability of fluids and proteins. It is 50,000 times more potent than histamine. Vascular endothelial growth factor is detectable in periodontal tissues within endothelial cells, plasma cells, macrophages and in junctional, sulcular and gingival epithelium.Diabetes mellitus is considered as a systemic risk factor for periodontal disease. Various investigations revealed the contribution of diabetes mellitus to periodontitis and to the severity via its effects on vasculature, inflammatory and immune response, alterations in collagen synthesis and genetic predisposition. It has been demonstrated that diabetes mellitus results in increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in numerous tissues as a response to both hyperglycemia and tissue ischemia Diabetes Mellitus may have an inductive effect on vascular endothelial growth factor levels in periodontal disease.
Diabetes is a major global health problem, currently affecting an estimated 246 million people worldwide, with a doubling of this prevalence expected in the next30 yr. Diabetes mellitus is one of the commonest endocrine disorders encountered in clinical practice. It is characterized by hyperglycaemia due to an absolute or relative lack of insulin and/or insulin resistance. Noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) Type 2occurs at any age, but is more common between 40–80 years of age and also has a strong genetic component. Compared with people without diabetes, affected individuals are at increased risk for both cardiovascular events and kidney disease. As the number of persons with diabetes increases, the development of microvascular complications like retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy also rises. These microvascular complications are linked to the duration of diabetes mellitus, poor glycemic control and systolic hypertension. Poor glycemic control and long duration of diabetes had impact on progression of microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria (coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease and stroke).
Religious activity or religiosity is defined as the degree of participation in and adherence to a particular religions’ teaching and its organized activity. Religious beliefs are the fundamental belief system that could influence our ideas, our values of life and ways of living. Many patients recognize the importance of religion in their own lives and would want the physicians to take religious factor into account of their health care management. Most British general practitioners and American family physicians recognized the positive impact of religiosity on their patients’ health. This book compiles the findings from a study that explored the association between religiosity/spirituality and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) control as well as religions and T2D control. The study examined also the prevalence of religiosity/ spirituality, religion and social support amongst the T2D patients in primary care. In addition, social support and its association with glycaemic control in patients with T2D is also reported.
Fifty patients of type II diabetes mellitus with rheumatic manifestations were studied. Adhesive capsulitis of shoulder was most common, followed by limited joint mobility, Dupuytren's contracture, carpal tunnel syndrome, DISH, flexor tenosynovitis, septic arthritis, forefoot osteolysis and Charcot's arthropathy. Of these, 44% had retinopathy, 40% had neuropathy, 24% had microalbuminuria, 30% had albuminuria; 48% had more than one complication.