Mobile Waste Processing Systems and Treatment Technologies,
The Symposium on Biological Methods of Waste Treatment and Management grew out of a Senior Fulbright Research Scholar appointment for Dr. Tharakan at the Department of Biotechnology at The New College, Chennai, India. The project was focused on bioenvironmental remediation research in south India with the overall goal of evaluating and assessing biological pollution control and remediation technologies in research or use in South India. The specific objectives of the project were to (1) document the diverse array of biologically based waste treatment technologies and management strategies that were already in use in South India; (2)evaluate the success of those biologically based technologies that had been implemented and were accessible to observation and review; and (3)attempt to document and characterize novel biologically based treatment technologies being researched, developed and implemented.
The experiments were conducted to develop an integrated treatment system for coffee processing wastewater (CPWW) through the combination of biomethanation with aeration and wetland plants treatment. The biomethanation was carried out at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) using up?ow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR) and 18 h of HRT was found to be optimum. The maximum biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids (TS) reduction were 66.0%, 61.0% and 58.0%, respectively with organic loading rate of 9.55 kg m-3 day-1. The reduction of pollution load of the wastewater by microbial action augmented by aeration resulted in the reduction of electrical conductivity (EC), BOD, COD, and total solids (TS). Continuous aeration of wastewater resulted in maximum of 74.6% and 68.6% reduction of BOD and COD. The wetland plant, Typha latifolia reduced 85.4% and 78.0% of BOD and COD, respectively in biomethanated cum aerated CPWW.
The long-lived radionuclides in radioactive waste have been considered to be dangerous pollutants, and their migration with groundwater is strongly affected by adsorption on the geologic materials. The presence of radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes is a major environmental concern. Such wastes arise from technologies producing nuclear fuels, and from laboratories working with radioactive materials. Various treatment technologies have been developed for the removal of heavy metals from water. The commonly used technologies for removing metal ions from effluents include chemical precipitation, lime coagulation, ion exchange. Synthetic organic–inorganic composite cation-exchange materials have received a great deal of attention because of their stability and reproducible analytical and electroanalytical applications. Organic polymers of composite material provide the mechanical strength and increase the surface area for more available exchangeable sites of the inorganic part. Nano composites of organic–inorganic cation-exchange materials prepared by sol–gel method are advance class of materials that are expected to provide many possibilities.
Water is widely used in mining and minerals industry: for processing and transporting of ore and waste, minerals separation, dust suppression, washing of equipment, smelter refractory cooling systems and human consumption. Both economic and environmental considerations make the recycling and re-use of water an absolute necessity. The industry has made much progress in developing close-circuit approaches that maximize water conservation, and responsible management of water is a key ingredient in ensuring that mining companies’ contribution to sustainable development is positive over the long term. Common characteristic of mineral processing water is the presence of ions and chemical compounds with a high pollution potential. One of the most satisfactory ways of dealing with this problem is the total recycling of reject waters, but several technical aspects influence the extent to which recycling can be performed.
Odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are typical products of industrial processes. VOCs may be originated from chemical mechanisms, solvent use, petroleum processing and several other sources, while odors are emitted mainly from livestocks, food processing industries, landfills, and waste water treatment plants. They are not known to cause serious diseases, however their persistence provokes nuisances to sensitive people in the case of odors whereas VOCs are precursors of pollutants that degrade the ozone layer. Therefore, the need of waste gas treatment technologies has increased tremendously. Biofiltration is a technique that employs a biofilm, containing a consortium of microorganisms in contact with water and waste gases, which by consuming the organic compounds present in the exhaust gases sustain their growth and simultaneously eliminate the content of several pollutants. It has been proven as a very efficient technique for the treatment of VOCs and odor emissions. In this book you will find an assessment of the potential of biofiltration to be established in Africa and the Caribbean (AF&CA). It is focused for engineers and technicians that provide services in air quality management and want to venture in these regions.
This Book provides a comprehensive introduction to Bio-Medical solid wastes management and to assess the waste handling and treatment systems. Biomedical Waste Management is receiving greater attention, inadequate management of biomedical waste can be associated with risks to quantities workers, patients, communities and their environment. The present study was conducted to assess the quantities and proportions of different constituents of waste, their handling, treatment and disposal methods in healthcare settings. Based on this case study there are two new methods of treatment is suggested for the large amount of Bio medical producing hospital. These methods give better results compared to the existing methods.
Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities,
Environmental Issues and Waste Management Technologies in the Ceramic and Nuclear Industries XI
Handbook of Solid Waste Management and Waste Minimization Technologies,
Advanced Processing and Manufacturing Technologies for Structural and Multifunctional Materials II
Application of mathematical models in design and operation of biological nutrient removal systems is becoming more important with the legislations getting stricter. Recent developments in computer technology enabled development of computer programs that are able to solve complex models required to describe the processes taking place in activated sludge plants. In this study, methods for determining COD and nitrogen fractions and kinetic and stoichiometric parameters for domestic and industrial wastewaters are evaluated, and wastewater is fractionated using actual plant measurements and results of previous studies in literature. In addition, IWAQ Activated Sludge Model Number 1 (ASM1) is applied to Comodepur Wastewater Treatment Plant Italy using ASM 1 run-time simulation environment. Due to limitations of the software for simulating the behavior of the WWTP, benchmark configuration of the model had been used and Post Denitrification has not been included in the study. Mostly default kinetic and stoichiometric parameters offered by IWAQ Task Group are used in simulations some of them had been calibrated to get closer values to the measured ones.
The important carotenoid in tomatoes i. e. lycopene having antioxidant capability has led to promising results in decreasing the risk of some illnesses and diseases. The tomato processing waste (pomace) is considered to be the potential raw material for production of natural lycopene. The purpose behind conventional solvent extraction method is a cheaper technology as compared to other modern technologies. It can be satisfactorily intended in the food systems as a functional ingredient. For the maximum recovery of lycopene from tomato pomace was carried out by selecting the suitable solvent system, temperature-time combination and feed to solvent ratio, i.e. Acetone: Ethyl acetate (1:1), 40 ?C/5 h and 1:30 (w/v). By using optimized solvent extraction process and had the lycopene content 611.105 mg/100 g, purity 81.319 %, refractive index 1.37604 and colour value 5.59 L*, 8.00 a*, 6.14 b*. There was 53.4 % reduction in the lycopene content after 60 days of storage at room temperature while at refrigerated condition, it was found safe with just 2.6 % reduction in lycopene content.
Concern for environmental protection has increased from a global viewpoint due to the exponential population and civilization growth; accompanied by the rapid generation of municipal and industrial solid waste which creates the most instringent paradox around the world. Sanitary landfills are considered as most indispensable solid waste management strategy for sustainable disposal but such implementation is handicapped by the inherent drawback of landfill leachates .The leachate being extremely toxic in nature are threat for the surrounding soil, groundwater and surface water. Aerobic treatment in the form of attached growth biomass systems is considered effective in removal of organic matter from the leachate. The biological oxidation and biosynthesis of organic matter present in leachate is done by the microorganisms used in the treatment process. The process is effective as compared to the other conventional anaerobic treatment of leachate as along with the organic matter harmful ammonical nitrogen can also be conventionally removed .Among all the technologies available for leachate treatment RBC(Rotatory Biological Contractor ) is the most cost effective and efficient.
Environmental Engineering - TECHNOLOGIES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT - AEROBIC TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS - The problem of water pollution due to industrial waste is attaining greater importance day by day. Distillery, sugar and dairy industries are the fast growing agro-based industries with high organic and inorganic contents which are high strength wastes and difficult to dispose or reuse. Due to the recent advancements in biotechnology, aerobic reactor is widely used as a tertiary treatment for the treatment of high strength industry wastewater. - FEATURES - 1. Physico-chemical analysis of distillery, sugar mill and dairy effluents and its pollution impacts. 2. Isolation of microorganism present in the sewage sludge, which is used as a seed culture in the Aerobic Reactor. 3. Experimentation in the continuous degradation of distillery, sugar mill and dairy effluents using an Aerobic Reactor under different experimental conditions. 4. Kinetic modeling of continuous degradation of distillery, sugar mill and dairy effluents.
Multidimensional Systems: Signal Processing and Modeling Techniques,69
This book describes the principles and construction plans of grey water treatment chains for the different treatment options. The main aim is to sensitizing and encouraging national, regional and municipal water and environmental sanitation authorities and agencies to integrate grey water management into their development policies and programmers. The book consists of five chapters. Chapter one includes general introduction about grey water definition, characterization, uses, and recycling. Chapter two summarizes the different grey water treatment methodologies. Chapter three presents case studies for the application of grey water treatment systems in some developing countries. Chapter four deals with the evaluation of different grey water treatment systems produced commercially worldwide based on an evaluation strategy according to specific ranking system. In chapter five, a description for a newly developed cost effective treatment system designed and executed by R&D TECH is shown. As an outcome form the work, we designed software to be used for cost analysis of the different grey water treatment systems and will be included with the book.