Making Cancer History – Disease and Discovery at the University of Texas M.D Anderson Cancer Center
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. Although the causes and natural history of breast cancer remain unclear, epidemiological research has uncovered genetic, biological, environmental and lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Over the past several decades, the risk of breast cancer in developed countries has increased by one to two percent annually. While data for developing countries are limited, cancer registries suggest that age-standardized incidence rates are rising even more rapidly in low-incidence regions such as Africa and Asia. As of 2012, there are 7 centers around Nepal that provide treatment for cancer, and Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, is the only one in the western region. The centre has both a Linear Accelerator and a Telecobalt external radiotherapy unit. Since its inception in 2000, the center has treated nearly 950 patients with radiotherapy till 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the trends and to estimate the future load of patients with breast cancer requiring radiotherapy at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal.
Prostate Cancer is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The median age at diagnosis is 68years and the disease incidence escalates sharply with increasing age. The natural history is still relatively unknown and many aspects of progression are poorly understood .Clinically localized disease varies from lower-grade tumors having a more indolent course to high-grade lesions that progress to metastatic disease with relative rapidity. Prostate cancer is most treatable and curable if caught in the earliest stage of the disease. Staging is an important part of developing the best treatment. Choosing a treatment option involves the patient, his family, and one or more doctors. It needs multidisciplinary oncology doctors of prostate cancer specialists as an urologist, a radiation oncologist, and a medical oncologist. The optimal management of prostate cancer that is clinically confined to the prostate remains controversial. Standard treatment options for localized disease include Radical prostatectomy, Radiation Therapy and watchful waiting management.For metastatic prostate cancer it becomes far harder for complete cure.
Ghanaian women, like many other women from the developing countries, have a low participation rate in breast cancer screening services. As a result, the disease is commonly diagnosed at late stages leading to a poor outcome with high mortality rates. The study showed a high level of knowledge deficit about the disease, which was evident from the poor appreciation of the risk factors and signs of the disease and high level of misconceptions and misinformation. Attitudes towards the disease were those of fear, superstitions, fatalism and stigma, which impact negatively on the outcome of the disease in Ghana. To improve breast cancer care in Ghana, the study makes two broad recommendations which include vigorous breast awareness and educational programmes, to teach and encourage Ghanaian women to adopt breast self-examination practices and to encourage health professionals to use every opportunity to examine their female patients as part of the overall clinical assessments. The second recommendation is the provision adequate facilities for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer to patients at an affordable cost.
New gene targets for disease susceptibility and therapeutic intervention only provide a starting point in the long and difficult process of incidence of a particular disease and drug discovery. The incorporation of genetic information into the routine prescribing of drugs may become standard to avoid serious toxicity with narrow therapeutic index drugs, and to maximize the likelihood of a positive response in the individual patient. However, genomics and genetic variations in particular amongst individuals will have an important impact in understanding of the molecular nature of diseases and of the responses, both desirable and adverse to drugs. Modern genetics will bring about significant improvements in the provision and practice of healthcare by redefining disease and targeting treatment. It will also lead to the discovery of novel targets and effective treatments and the provision of more effective preventative healthcare. Pharmacogenomics aims to complement the current ‘one-medicine fits-all’ scenario with drugs that are based on a deeper understanding of gene variations and the effect of such variations on drug responses.
Testicular cancer is a deadly disease that affects a growing number of men worldwide each year. The disease strikes when men are young and in their most productive years. Testicular Cancer is the most common cause of cancer among men aged 15 to 35 years and it has been reported to be on the increase. Testicular Cancer is highly treatable and often curable once diagnosed early therefore all men should be aware of its symptoms. The main objective of the study was to determine the knowledge about testicular cancer, perceived risk for testicular cancer and testicular cancer preventive practices of University male students aged 18 years and above in Uganda. The study employed a descriptive cross sectional design. The study was conducted among Makerere University male students aged 18 to 32 years residing in Lumumba Hall, University Hall and Nkrumah Halls of residence. Systematic random sampling was used to obtain the 323 participants. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data over a period of two months. Data was analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software package.
Vaeth Frontiers Of Radiation Therapy And Oncology: Radiation Therapy And The Cancer Center
Research is a high concept; it brings to test our patience, vigor and dedication. Every result arrived at a beginning for higher achievements. Our project in the same interest is just a drop in the ocean. At the same time Cancer biomarker?based diagnostics have applications for establishing disease predisposition, early detection, cancer staging, therapy selection, identifying whether or not a cancer is metastatic, therapy monitoring, assessing prognosis, and advances in the adjuvant setting. New laboratory methods, improvements in the tools available to scientists, and an overriding need to improve cancer therapies are driving current efforts to map cancer-related changes in the body. These changes encompass predisposition or risk factors associated with cancer and subsequent developments of the disease. The need to identify and understand cancer biomarkers is being driven by a number of factors. These include requirements to improve screening and early detection, to provide better guidance on therapy, and to avoid therapy resistance attributes, for understanding cancer staging, response to treatment, and prognosis.
Here we have developed a structure based analysis to address two problems of protein understanding that would give us an insight about various disease correlation, firstly is there any relation between the common receptor proteins that play a major role in Diabetes, Alzheimer, Cancer and Cardiovascular disease? And secondly are there any point mutations in the conserved regions of these receptor proteins which might bring this kind of correlation between the diseases?
"Breast cancer may very well be history's oldest malaise, known as well to the ancients as it is to us. The women who have endured it share a unique sisterhood. Queen Atossa and Dr. Jerri Nielsen separated by era and geography, by culture, religion, politics, economics, and world view could hardly have been more different. Born 2,500 years apart, they stand as opposite bookends on the shelf of human history. One was the most powerful woman in the ancient world, the daughter of an emperor, the mother of a god; the other is a twenty first century physician with a streak of adventure coursing through her veins. From the imperial throne in ancient Babylon, Atossa could not have imagined the modern world, and only in the driest pages of classical literature could Antarctica-based Jerri Nielsen even have begun to fathom the Near East five centuries before the birth of Christ. For all their differences, however, they shared a common fear that transcends time and space." from Bathsheba's Breast In 1967, an Italian surgeon touring Amsterdam's Rijks museum stopped in front of Rembrandt's Bathsheba at Her Bath, on loan from the Louvre, and noticed an asymmetry to Bathsheba's left breast; it seemed distended, swollen near the armpit, discolored, and marked with a distinctive pitting. With a little research, the physician learned that Rembrandt's model, his mistress Hendrickje Stoffels, later died after a long illness, and he conjectured in a celebrated article for an Italian medical journal that the cause of her death was almost certainly breast cancer. A horror known to every culture in every age, breast cancer has been responsible for the deaths of 25 million women throughout history. An Egyptian physician writing 3,500 years ago concluded that there was no treatment for the disease. Later surgeons recommended excising the tumor or, in extreme cases, the entire breast. This was the treatment advocated by the court physician to sixth-century Byzantine empress Theodora, the wife of Justinian, though she chose to die in pain rather than lose her breast. Only in the past few decades has treatment advanced beyond disfiguring surgery. In Bathsheba's Breast, historian James S. Olson who lost his left hand and forearm to cancer while writing this book -- provides an absorbing and often frightening narrative history of breast cancer told through the heroic stories of women who have confronted the disease, from Theodora to Anne of Austria, Louis XIV's mother, who confronted "nun's disease" by perfecting the art of dying well, to Dr. Jerri Nielson, who was dramatically evacuated from the South Pole in 1999 after performing a biopsy on her own breast and self-administering chemotherapy. Olson explores every facet of the disease: medicine's evolving understanding of its pathology and treatment options; its cultural significance; the political and economic logic that has dictated the terms of a war on a "woman's disease"; and the rise of patient activism. Olson concludes that, although it has not yet been conquered, breast cancer is no longer the story of individual women struggling alone against a mysterious and deadly foe.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer(22% of all new cases) as well as the leading cause of cancer deaths(14% of all cancer deaths)in women worldwide.The incidence of breast cancer is increasing at an alarming rate in India cuttting across urban and rural divide.Country as vast as India poses its own share of peculiar problems with lack of awareness about the disease,advanced stage of disease presentation and lack of proper screening and treatment facilities.We present an Indian prespective of the demographics and problems encountered in treatment of breast cancer.
Examining one hundred years in the public campaign against cancer, this path-breaking study of scientific, medical, and epidemiological writings and of cinematic and literary representations of disease, reveals how experts and the lay public saw cancer's demographic shifts - from a stereotypical white female disease to equal opportunity killer -- as a message about women, men, race and the changing color line.
Worldwide, breast cancer is the leading cancer dilemma of the older adult women. Younger women form the minority of breast cancer patients. In Iraqi Kurdistan, we seem to be seeing more patients at younger ages and with more advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study is to find out the extent of this problem in women ? 40 years. Clinical, pathological and demographic data of breast cancer in Hiwa Cancer Hospital (HCH) in Sulaymaniyah were analyzed. These young-age breast cancer data were then compared to local all-age data from the region, also with Middle Eastern, Western and Asian countries. By end of this retrospective / prospective study of hundred breast cancer young survivors, the authors concluded that breast cancer in this group of patients is about 13% of all breast cancer ladies in HCH. It is more common as compared to developed countries. Majority of patients were diagnosed at advanced stages and their tumors exhibited more aggressive clinico-pathological features. Further studies with large number of patients and case controls are recommended to validate these initial findings and investigate survival / local and distant control in this group of patients.
Plagiarism and academic dishonesty systematically destroy the fabrics of University Education like cancer. Universities and academia have a mandate of eliminating plagiarism and academic dishonesty. Elimination of plagiarism automatically promotes originality, creativity and innovation, which is the real motive of University education creation of new knowledge. The book is devoted to an exposition of the subject of plagiarism and academic dishonesty. This is through explanation of different theoretical and concepts of plagiarism. The framework facilitates understanding of basic concepts of plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty. The book has seven chapters, each dedicated to the explanation of plagiarism and academic dishonesty. The book has dealt with theories and concepts of plagiarism, academic dishonesty, forms of plagiarism, causes of plagiarism, consequences and mechanisms for combating plagiarism and academic dishonesty have been proposed. Tapping into the knowledge of plagiarism brings in the vitality required for creativity and innovation.
The current study was conducted to evaluate the oxidative stress status in prostate cancer. To achieve this purpose, 75 prostate cancer patients of ages 63.5± 3.5 years and 33 apparently healthy individuals of ages 61± 3.8 years (control group) were enrolled. The distribution of patients revealed 60% (40) of rural areas, 44% (30) are smokers, 52% (39) having either heart diseases and/or hypertension, and 40% (30) of positive family history for the disease. The levels of MDA, GSH, GPX, and CAT were measured in sera of patients and control group. The statistical analysis exhibited significant elevation for MDA levels and significant decreases for GSH and GPX levels in the group of patients when compared with those of the control group. Patients from rural areas showed significant rise for MDA values when compared with those of urban areas. Variations of oxidative stress markers were found to be essentially related to prostate cancer and independent on smoking or other diseases in the studied patients. MDA levels were demonstrated to increase significantly in patients of positive family history when compared with those of negative family history of prostate cancer.
Cervical cancer is a major public health problem of women in low income countries like Nigeria. Globally 1.4 million women live with the disease and 7 million people may have precancerous changes. Eighty percent of the 493,000 annual new cases and 80-85% of annual deaths from cervical cancer occur in Low Income Countries (LIC) having less than 5% of the global cancer resources. In Nigeria 9,922 cases are diagnosed annually and 8,030 die. These figures will increase by about 25% in 10 years. The incidence rate ranging from 25 to 30 per 100,000 women is 5-6 times higher than the incidence in High Income Countries. Affected women come with advanced disease posing great challenge to the struggling health system. The disease is considered a ‘Sexually Transmitted disease’ with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the necessary cause. Nigerian women of all ages have a high HPV prevalence of 26.3% due to many determinants and co-factors like early sexual debut, multiple sex partners, low condom use, high parity, high incidence of other Sexually Transmitted Infections including HIV, poverty and illiteracy.This book will serve as guide for planners of national policy on cervical cancer prevention
Quinazoline derivatives have received a great interest as anti-cancer agents since the discovery of Gefitinib. From about 1995 to 2006, the anticancer quinazoline panorama has been dominated by the 4-anilinoquinazolines as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Interests in quinazolines as anticancer agents have been further increased after the discovery of thymidylate synthase inhibitors Raltitrexed and Thymitaq. The aim of this book is to provide a brief overview of synthesis and pharmacology of quinazoline based anti-cancer agents. The first chapter provides a brief review of conventional and targeted anti-cancer agents and also elaborates on the special place held by quinazoline derivatives in the current anti-cancer chemotherapy. The second chapter is aimed at providing a review of reported synthetic strategies and pharmacological properties of clinically approved quinazoline kinase inhibitors. The third chapter covers the reported synthetic strategies and information on pharmacology of various quinazoline kinase inhibitors which are currently under clinical trials. The fourth chapter covers the literature on anti-cancer activity of quinazoline derivatives reported in the past decade.
Bringing together over a decade's worth of oncological research, Foods to FightCancer shows you how to apply the latest scientific findings about cancer toyour everyday life. Whether you are looking to minimise your risk of developingcancer, or are making dietary choices to fight this disease, Foods to FightCancer will dispel the myths and give you the facts about the food.Add fighting cancer to your daily menu by incorporating cabbage, berries, andtomatoes into your diet, and learn which herbs and spices to use. See thebenefits behind each food and the properties that make these essential to yourdiet. Compiled using recommendations from the World Cancer Research Fund,Foods to Fight Cancer is a vital read for anyone looking to improve their health,change their diet, and fight cancer.
Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer shows various signs and symptom depending on its size and location. Whether cancer may be of any size and at any location, it is one of the most inoperable diseases known.It has a very high morbidity and mortality rate.Cause of this disease is unknown. Some say it is due to adverse habits like smoking, drinking etc, while some say it is a genetically or inherited disorder.Therefore the total cure of this disease is mandatory and is the early diagnosis of this disease.It is well said that prevention is better than cure.So to prevent the spread of cancer to a later stage we can prevent it by diagnosing it at an early stage. For this reason are the vital stains made. This book is a compilation of all commonly used vital stains,their mode of action,their application in various diseases & cancer related information.You will find it very difficult to compile the knowledge about “vital stain- an early diagnostic tool for cancer” at one place.This book gives you this opportunity so utilize it at your fullest.THANK YOU Content: Introduction Historical perspective Theories of staining Classification of staining vital stains
This study was conducted on 30 children who were recruited from the Childhood cancer survivors' clinic at the Pediatric hospital , Ainshams university. All of them have been in complete remission for at least 12 months. Assessment of the survivors' Quality of life was done by using The PedsQL 4.0 Generic and Cancer. ( parent and child record). Assessment of survivors' cognitive functions was done using The Wechsler intelligence scale for children. Also assessment of the presence of behavioral problems was done using Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).