The main focus in the study of age at marriage stems from the fact that marriage marks the entry of women into her reproductive cycle. There is close relationship between age at marriage and fertility. Selection of the mate is an important preliminary step before the performance of marriage. If the characteristics of the bridegroom which includes characteristics like economic status, tastes, education, physical appearance, independent residence are considered in the mate selection, the selection process can be lengthy and thus raise the age at marriage. Keeping these factors in mind, the present study attempts to look at marriage as an out come of age at entry for search and duration of search for mate selection. Marriage timing and mate selection are ultimate outcomes of family and household decision making processes. Structural and cultural context within which such decisions take place are more important. This study examines the factors that play a role in influencing the age at marriage of women in the context of changing rural scene.
Marriage, in Indian social system, acquires an important place. The custom of marriage is largely governed by the fixed social customs and norms carried out from one to another generation. However, under the wave of present modernization, lot of changes has been observed in different dimensions of mate selection and marriage process. Although, a number of studies across the globe have documented the impact of education, employment and other proxies of modernisation on age at initiation of marital formation, the impact of changes in other dimensions of mate selection such as changes in marriage norms, laws pertaining to age at marriage, mate selection criteria, selection process, cost of marriage and many more on age at first marriage have not been discussed in detail. The views of unmarried individuals on mate selection and their transition to marriage under different circumstances also remained a neglected area for discussion. Using the first hand data, collected from the urban part of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh from the two generation population, this study explores the recent dynamics of marriage and mate selection in India.
This study explores the patterns and determinants of age at first marriage of girls in Nepal. Empirical analyses of data show three main patterns of age at marriage of women. First, early marriage especially pre-pubertal marriage of girls is declining in Nepal with a gradual increase in marriage age. Despite this decline, some of the Terai caste groups in particular, still marry their daughters before their fifteenth birthday. Second, the majority of girls among Terai caste and ethnic groups, Muslims and Hills lower-castes are still married between 15 and 17 years of age, that is, below 18, the legal age at marriage, which reveals the persistence of early marriage among these groups. Third, marriage is still universal and mandatory among women in Nepal, most of which occur between ages 15 and 24. Bivariate and multivariate analyses reveal that age of girls, rural-urban place of residence, education of girls and their mothers, age at menarche, caste/ethnicity and religion, and dowry were significantly associated with age at marriage. The prevalence of dowry among the Terai caste groups, compounded with socio-cultural factors has a strong influence on the marriage timing of girls.
Age at first marriage has been considered as a leading factor for public policy because of its impact on fertility and population growth. It is well known that population growth depends primarily on two factors, fertility and mortality, and fertility depends considerably on the age at which men and women marry.Therefore the study of age at first marriage in any population is of immense important due to its strong association with social, economic and demographic change in population. Thus, by utilizing all the three round of National Family Health Survey(NFHS) data,the present study attempts to capture the levels,trends and determinants of age at first marriage in India and also tries to study the age at first marriage among men. Results shows that from NFHS-1 to NFHS-3, the proportion of ever married males age 10-29 has decreased from 27 percent to 21 percent and among females it has decreased from 52 percent to 22 percent.The proportion of ever married population in young age group in states Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan is quite large. Among the progressive birth cohorts, rate of increase in age at first marriage is low than the progressive marriage cohort.
The main objective of this present study is to assess the effect of age at marriage of women on their reproductive health while considering the other socio-economic and demographic factors associated with reproductive health among currently married women (CMW) of the age group of 15-44 years. Policy makers and program implementer may formulate appropriate strategy to address early married women for improving their reproductive and child health with behavioural change and communication(BCC)approach.
Mate Selection & Marriage are the most important events in the life of any person and it is the seed of future existence. It is necessary for the creation, sustenance and continuation of human beings. It is not just a state one enters into, but a domain of life that needs to be nurtured, so that it may provide couples what they are seeking in life i.e. emotional fulfillment. The bonds of marriage especially in the Indian culture go much beyond marital relationship. According to Hindu philosophy, marriage is a sanskar and a sacrament. It aims at the biological, emotional, social and spiritual fulfillment and the development of an individual. Hence 300 PG students chosen at random from purposely selected 7 colleges of Parbhani dist.,Maharashtra State(India) were personally interviewed based on the interview schedule cum checklist.Irrespective of the SES of PG students, 100% boys,82% girls wanted to get married for the reasons to have best and permanent companion and someone to care and share forever. The findings of the research study are very useful to youth, families,community,educators and researchers for getting enlightened about the changing trends in mate selection and marriage
Rapid global changes including urbanization, migration, increasing educational opportunities and technological advancement have its ramifications on the institution of marriage all over the world and India also has not remained segregated from these changes. However, in India traditional values and norms are still playing a vital role in marriage process, such as age at marriage, process of mate selection, dowry practice, status of bride in family, violence in marital life etc. The broad objective of the study is to understand the various dimensions of married life among young married men and women of selected states. Data for this study has been taken from “The Youth in India: Situation and Needs” survey conducted during 2006-2007. Arrange marriage is the most preferred form of marriage across all the selected states. Except for the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu handful youth in less developed states were aware about their would-be spouse before marriage. Better economic condition, level of education and mother’s education, and especially education of married women appeared as significant and positive determinants on interaction with spouse before marriage.
People live and adapt differently in the same world. This book provides practical evidence on cross-cultural social issues among ethnic groups (e. g. Muslim, Hindu, Santal and Oraon) in rural Bangladesh. Based on universal approach this book investigates and explains cultural value orientation, age ascription, age at first marriage, socio-economic status attainment, marriage relationship, family communication, family structure, marital sexuality issues that would help social and behavioral scientists to understand cross-culturally. The findings presented in the book may also help to develop new principles in the subject areas of cross-cultural research.
Individuals’ growing desire for a long life relationship with a chosen partner and through whom lifelong relationships are a kinds of preamble for every unmarried adults in the world and young adults motive to make decision to which they should marry were determined by their own. Hence, mate selection is one of young adults preamble for future relationship, while cohabitation is the way of life of woman and man living together without legal marriage contract. However, the couples act as a husband and a wife in the community.
This work deals with the ethnic differentiation of marital behavior in Kazakhstan. The study of marital behavior of ethnic groups is important and necessary, especially in a multiethnic state as Kazakhstan. Undoubtedly, the institution of marriage regulates the social reproduction of the population, and differences in marital behavior have an impact on family organizations and fertility among ethnic groups. These differences may shape the age at first marriage, age at first birth, and so on, that will have subsequent effects on the family organization among these ethnic groups. This work attempts to analyze the differences in attitudes toward marital marital myths between ethnic Kazakhs and Slavics. The sociological research has revealed some significant differences in the myths existing about marriage between these ethnic groups. These differences, largely due to socio-cultural characteristics.
The present study was planned to investigate the level of cholesterol in obese and non-obese individuals according to their BMI and age in different population residing in Karachi. A total of 40 subjects 18-55 years of age participated in the study, among which 30 subjects (Age=29.47±1.99) were obese (BMI=35.41±0.878) and 10 were control with (age =21.00±0.547) and BMI =19.96±0.432. An overnight fasting blood sample was obtained and serum total Cholesterol (T-CH) level was estimated. Obese persons having Mean T-CH=202.6±14.3 and control having Mean T-CH=173.3±14.0.The data was further divided into males and female. Obese females were 11 with their BMI 31.836± 0.21, mean age ranged at 28.73±4.04 and T-CH 191.8±21.8. While that of controls females were 6 in number with their BMI ranged at 19.183±0.507, age 21.000±0.894 and Cholesterol 148.7±16.0 in controls. Total number of obese males were 19 with their BMI ranged at 37.49± 1.14, age ranged at 29.89±2.19 and cholesterol level ranged at 208.89±19.1. Control males were 4 in number with their BMI ranged at 21.125±0.075, age 21.250±0 and their T-CH 128.7±8.72.
A woman's first birth is one of the most significant events in her life. In many parts of Ethiopia the median age at first birth was too young (below 18). This cross-sectional survey revealed that, the median age at giving the first birth in Wolkite town was 19 years of age. The logistic regression statistic indicated that age at first marriage, age at first sex, contraceptive use and education exhibited statistically significant impact on the mothers’ age at giving the first birth. Correspondingly, the chi-square test had also shown that, age at marriage, age at first sex, contraceptive use, education and work status of the women in Welkite town had a significant (p>0.001) relationship with the age at giving the first birth.Variation in age at first sexual intercourse, marriage, education, and the extent of contraception are found to be the determinant factor on the age of women at first birth. It therefore, girl’s enrolment at higher education and target family planning programs.
Since the mid 18th century, a declining trend in age at menarche is observed worldwide until it stabilized at around 12-13 years of age for the last 40-50 years in developed countries. However, because of variation in the life style, genetics, and environment factors, the age at menarche still continued to vary especially in less developed countries. The knowledge of age of menarche is used to establish law about the age of marriage, age of consensual sex, abortion, family planning, rape and other aspects of female reproductive life. With emergence of HIV as one of major threats to mankind and teenage pregnancy as one of the major social problem, it is important to understand and promote healthy body habits for appropriate timing of menarche. Few studies were carried out in developing countries like Ethiopia earlier to find the age of menarche. The aim of this study was to determine age at menarche and to investigate its relation with body habits among adolescents and conducted in hope of helping the government to decide the appropriate age of children at which the topics like sex education, contraception and sanitary practices can be incorporated at school.
Cairo Marriage Time is about girls who at the age of five are prepared to marriage before being prepared for life. It is about the social construction of females who do not recognize themselves with any value, except through marriage. It is about a social class who claims modernization yet holds on with all its might to the traditional, conservative way of living. It is dedicated to every woman who couldn’t find access to marriage because she does not fit in the marriage formula of right proportions; and is either a little bit full, or tall, or dark, or possess a critical mind. It is also dedicated to every divorced woman who is underrepresented and refused, for refusing to live an empty life and deceive herself before she deceives others. It is simply written for every woman who is rapped by her society
According to The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS report of regional statistics for HIV/AIDS from 2001-2008, Latin America has the third highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS among children and adults in the world with about 2 million infected in 2008. Among all of these countries, Mexico has the second highest prevalence in Latin America. Another topic of public health concern associated with the boom of the younger generations in Mexico is the potential increase in unintended pregnancies. The objective of this study was to explore the factors influencing knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding reproductive health, as well as sexual risk behaviors among young adults in a rural community in Mexico. A mixed-methods investigation was conducted, including 10 closed-ended questionnaires and 10 in-depth interviews with five females and five males ranging from 18-28 years of age. Findings indicate that level of education had little influence on awareness of contraceptive methods and depth of knowledge increased only slightly with years of education. Religious affiliation was not related to contraceptive preference and/or use, and pre-marital sex was less common among females.
This study was conducted in Shebel-Berenta Woreda of East Gojjam Administrative Zone, Northwestern Ethiopia. This study mainly focused on the impact of gender on females’ education. In the study area, females’ education is highly influenced by different factors such as parental educational and economic background and socio-cultural factors. Education needs the active involvement of students to achieve its objectives. The study examined how these factors influence the educational participation and academic performance of female students in selected schools of Berenta Woreda. The study also investigated the gender-specific impact of poverty on education. Lack of educational facilities and parental financial constraints play a negative role in hindering females’ education in the study area. In addition to poverty, economic decision-making power and control over resources at the household level are examined. The education of females is affected by different factors. Among these factors, early marriage is the major one. Early marriage is the most common practice in the study area. The reasons for the practice of early marriage are depicted in the study.
Iron deficiency is the most common etiology of anemia worldwide and has several risk factors. Although iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) can occur at any age, women during reproductive age are particularly vulnerable to develop IDA due to increased nutritional demand during pregnancy and life cycle. This book assesses the prevalence and determinants of anemia among women in the reproductive age in Gaza Governorates. Book based on retrospective, cross sectional study. Finding showed prevalence of IDA among women at reproductive age (71.1%). The prevalence of anemia among single was 66.5%, and among married women was 76.6%. Secondary and less education were more risky for anemia. 75.5% of women practice sedentary and low life style was associated with anemia. Additionally, there was a strong relationship between anemia and BMI. In addition, anemia was high among women married or delivered at age? 20 years; this difference reaches statistically significance level. Moreover, number of cesarean section, menstruation more than 5days and parasitic infection with Entamiba and Gardia was statistically associated by anemia.
Marital life disruption has important and direct effect on the well being of the family at the individual or societal level. But studies on marital disruption with its causative factors especially due to family migration are rare and scarce in our country. The present study attempts to explore the basic demographic and socio- economic determinants of female first marital disruption in Addis Ababa,Ethiopia, the case of Yeka sub-city, using primary data. A total of 600 women were interviewed using structured questionnaire. And an in-depth interview was done with selected key informants. Among surveyed women 61.3 percent of the families were migrants within first marriage. Concerning the result, the bi-variate analysis indicates the significant association of migration status of the family, age at first marriage and some socioeconomic characteristics of respondents with marital disruption. Moreover, migration status of the family, number of migration, stream of migration within first marriage and the place where the family live at the start of first marriage are among the variables which showed a significant difference between the dichotomous groups.
Evolution operates on the changes occur in the gene pool of a population. Evolution is a holistically oriented process in evolving the total population. Indian population comprises of about 4000 endogamous groups derived due to unique social organization and socio-economic conditions and thus to analyse the genetic variations systematically changing.This book describe and delineate the Demographic (sex ratio,child-women ratio,fertility ratio,marriage types and inbreeding,age at menarche,age at menopause,age at marriage,age difference of couple, marital distance, fertility, mortality selection potential,effective population size),Morphological,Behavioural Characteristics(earlobe,cleft chin,hypertrichosis,eyebrows,tongue pigmentation, middle phalangeal hair, menus digital formula ,pes digital formula,hand clasping, handedness,tongue rolling and folding) and Dermatoglyphics(finger and palm both qualitative ,quantitative characters) of the PADMASALIS backward caste population of kadapa district,Andhraradesh,India.This ads as a good contribution to the field of population Genetics study.
A study elicit the coverage of MCH and Family Welfare services at sub centre level was carried out in R. S. Pura block which is the rural field practice area of Government Medical College, Jammu, India.Out of the existing 25 sub centres, 10 sub-centres were randomly selected for the purpose of study. All the records pertaining to MCH and family welfare services rendered by these sub centres were scrutinized to study the extent of coverage of MCH and family welfare services as well as the association of maternal age and order of pregnancy followed by home visits of a sub sample of the registered mothers to find out the validity of these records as well as to study the association of factors such as maternal literacy, socio economic status of the family and accessibility of the sub centre with the utilization of MCH and Family Welfare. The association of the age of mother and order of pregnancy with the utilization of antenatal, intranatal and postnatal services among the pregnant females registered at sub centre level was studied.The extent of coverage of immunization among infants born and registered during time of study was analysed through entry in immunization registers.