The main focus in the study of age at marriage stems from the fact that marriage marks the entry of women into her reproductive cycle. There is close relationship between age at marriage and fertility. Selection of the mate is an important preliminary step before the performance of marriage. If the characteristics of the bridegroom which includes characteristics like economic status, tastes, education, physical appearance, independent residence are considered in the mate selection, the selection process can be lengthy and thus raise the age at marriage. Keeping these factors in mind, the present study attempts to look at marriage as an out come of age at entry for search and duration of search for mate selection. Marriage timing and mate selection are ultimate outcomes of family and household decision making processes. Structural and cultural context within which such decisions take place are more important. This study examines the factors that play a role in influencing the age at marriage of women in the context of changing rural scene.
Marriage, in Indian social system, acquires an important place. The custom of marriage is largely governed by the fixed social customs and norms carried out from one to another generation. However, under the wave of present modernization, lot of changes has been observed in different dimensions of mate selection and marriage process. Although, a number of studies across the globe have documented the impact of education, employment and other proxies of modernisation on age at initiation of marital formation, the impact of changes in other dimensions of mate selection such as changes in marriage norms, laws pertaining to age at marriage, mate selection criteria, selection process, cost of marriage and many more on age at first marriage have not been discussed in detail. The views of unmarried individuals on mate selection and their transition to marriage under different circumstances also remained a neglected area for discussion. Using the first hand data, collected from the urban part of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh from the two generation population, this study explores the recent dynamics of marriage and mate selection in India.
Age at first marriage has been considered as a leading factor for public policy because of its impact on fertility and population growth. It is well known that population growth depends primarily on two factors, fertility and mortality, and fertility depends considerably on the age at which men and women marry.Therefore the study of age at first marriage in any population is of immense important due to its strong association with social, economic and demographic change in population. Thus, by utilizing all the three round of National Family Health Survey(NFHS) data,the present study attempts to capture the levels,trends and determinants of age at first marriage in India and also tries to study the age at first marriage among men. Results shows that from NFHS-1 to NFHS-3, the proportion of ever married males age 10-29 has decreased from 27 percent to 21 percent and among females it has decreased from 52 percent to 22 percent.The proportion of ever married population in young age group in states Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan is quite large. Among the progressive birth cohorts, rate of increase in age at first marriage is low than the progressive marriage cohort.
This study explores the patterns and determinants of age at first marriage of girls in Nepal. Empirical analyses of data show three main patterns of age at marriage of women. First, early marriage especially pre-pubertal marriage of girls is declining in Nepal with a gradual increase in marriage age. Despite this decline, some of the Terai caste groups in particular, still marry their daughters before their fifteenth birthday. Second, the majority of girls among Terai caste and ethnic groups, Muslims and Hills lower-castes are still married between 15 and 17 years of age, that is, below 18, the legal age at marriage, which reveals the persistence of early marriage among these groups. Third, marriage is still universal and mandatory among women in Nepal, most of which occur between ages 15 and 24. Bivariate and multivariate analyses reveal that age of girls, rural-urban place of residence, education of girls and their mothers, age at menarche, caste/ethnicity and religion, and dowry were significantly associated with age at marriage. The prevalence of dowry among the Terai caste groups, compounded with socio-cultural factors has a strong influence on the marriage timing of girls.
The main objective of this present study is to assess the effect of age at marriage of women on their reproductive health while considering the other socio-economic and demographic factors associated with reproductive health among currently married women (CMW) of the age group of 15-44 years. Policy makers and program implementer may formulate appropriate strategy to address early married women for improving their reproductive and child health with behavioural change and communication(BCC)approach.
Mate Selection & Marriage are the most important events in the life of any person and it is the seed of future existence. It is necessary for the creation, sustenance and continuation of human beings. It is not just a state one enters into, but a domain of life that needs to be nurtured, so that it may provide couples what they are seeking in life i.e. emotional fulfillment. The bonds of marriage especially in the Indian culture go much beyond marital relationship. According to Hindu philosophy, marriage is a sanskar and a sacrament. It aims at the biological, emotional, social and spiritual fulfillment and the development of an individual. Hence 300 PG students chosen at random from purposely selected 7 colleges of Parbhani dist.,Maharashtra State(India) were personally interviewed based on the interview schedule cum checklist.Irrespective of the SES of PG students, 100% boys,82% girls wanted to get married for the reasons to have best and permanent companion and someone to care and share forever. The findings of the research study are very useful to youth, families,community,educators and researchers for getting enlightened about the changing trends in mate selection and marriage
People live and adapt differently in the same world. This book provides practical evidence on cross-cultural social issues among ethnic groups (e. g. Muslim, Hindu, Santal and Oraon) in rural Bangladesh. Based on universal approach this book investigates and explains cultural value orientation, age ascription, age at first marriage, socio-economic status attainment, marriage relationship, family communication, family structure, marital sexuality issues that would help social and behavioral scientists to understand cross-culturally. The findings presented in the book may also help to develop new principles in the subject areas of cross-cultural research.
Since the mid 18th century, a declining trend in age at menarche is observed worldwide until it stabilized at around 12-13 years of age for the last 40-50 years in developed countries. However, because of variation in the life style, genetics, and environment factors, the age at menarche still continued to vary especially in less developed countries. The knowledge of age of menarche is used to establish law about the age of marriage, age of consensual sex, abortion, family planning, rape and other aspects of female reproductive life. With emergence of HIV as one of major threats to mankind and teenage pregnancy as one of the major social problem, it is important to understand and promote healthy body habits for appropriate timing of menarche. Few studies were carried out in developing countries like Ethiopia earlier to find the age of menarche. The aim of this study was to determine age at menarche and to investigate its relation with body habits among adolescents and conducted in hope of helping the government to decide the appropriate age of children at which the topics like sex education, contraception and sanitary practices can be incorporated at school.
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of chickenpox and shingles can cause severe systemic infections of the central nervous system and the respiratory tract in immunocompetent individuals as well as in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the seroprevalence of VZV IgG antibody in nursery and primary school children aged 4-15 years in Kaduna state. Blood samples were obtained from pupils whose parents consented. Their sera were separated by centrifugation at 1500 rpm, stored at -20?C, and analyzed using a commercial kit to assay for VZV IgG levels via enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Information about the pupil’s demographic factors and other variables were obtained through a questionnaire. A total of 353 serum samples were collected. The overall seroprevalence rate was 66.3%. Prevalence of antibodies is 68.5% in males, 63.9% in females. The age group of 4-6 had the lowest prevalence of 60% and 41.2% for males and females respectively; while those of 13-15 years age had the highest value of 71.2% and 69.0% for males and females respectively.
This study aimed at investigating the factors influencing choice of degree courses among female students at the University of Nairobi in the 2010/2011 cohort. Factors affecting choice of degree courses has been of concern especially as it directly impacts on the Government policy on Gender(GoK ,2005) that requires 30% of all jobs be held by women across all careers. A knowledge gap exists on the reasons for undergraduate female students choices of various degrees courses at university level. Reasons influencing the career choices among women students has been postulated to include self-efficacy, socio-economic factors, gender factors and lack of adequate information or poor career guidance. The moderating and intervening variables such as university admission criteria, performance at the National examinations, family background and , teachers and peer influence, school facilities, national education policies have been found in this study as possible contributing factors to the choice of degree courses and careers among female students in Universities in Kenya.
The present study was planned to investigate the level of cholesterol in obese and non-obese individuals according to their BMI and age in different population residing in Karachi. A total of 40 subjects 18-55 years of age participated in the study, among which 30 subjects (Age=29.47±1.99) were obese (BMI=35.41±0.878) and 10 were control with (age =21.00±0.547) and BMI =19.96±0.432. An overnight fasting blood sample was obtained and serum total Cholesterol (T-CH) level was estimated. Obese persons having Mean T-CH=202.6±14.3 and control having Mean T-CH=173.3±14.0.The data was further divided into males and female. Obese females were 11 with their BMI 31.836± 0.21, mean age ranged at 28.73±4.04 and T-CH 191.8±21.8. While that of controls females were 6 in number with their BMI ranged at 19.183±0.507, age 21.000±0.894 and Cholesterol 148.7±16.0 in controls. Total number of obese males were 19 with their BMI ranged at 37.49± 1.14, age ranged at 29.89±2.19 and cholesterol level ranged at 208.89±19.1. Control males were 4 in number with their BMI ranged at 21.125±0.075, age 21.250±0 and their T-CH 128.7±8.72.
This is a study based on the Sunni Community in Bismillahnagar, Bangalore. This study examines the customs and practices associated with marriage amongst the Sunnis. The researchers have looked at prestation and the direction of and circumstances associated with gift giving. The customs surrounding the giving of Walimah and Mehar were examined. The decision making processes, primarily associated with marriage and conjugal life were also examined.
This book consist of four chapters. Chapter one introduces us to the main focus of the book. Chapter two deals with the literature review where previous works on the subject was reviewed. Attention was focused on review of different probability distributions. Chapter three contains data analysis, methodology and model fitting. Different methods of estimating parameters were considered. Chapter three is mainly on observation and conclusion.
Nurturing and science education play a significant role in developing a positive attitude toward the environment. Several researchers have shown that there is an important link between environmental science education and environmental awareness and attitude. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of environmental awareness and attitude among male and female students of class 9 in Gaza city- Palestine, and to investigate the relation between environmental awareness and attitude. The researchers constructed a questionnaire to measure both the environmental awareness and attitude. The results indicated that the students’ have a moderate level of environmental awareness (70.2%) and their positive attitude toward the environment was low (64.33%). One of the most interesting results is that, males have a significantly higher environmental awareness than females, while females have shown more positive attitude toward environment than males. Therefore, the findings of this study are useful to accentuate the importance of enriching our students' background in environmental knowledge and awareness, with equal opportunity for both males and females students.
A woman's first birth is one of the most significant events in her life. In many parts of Ethiopia the median age at first birth was too young (below 18). This cross-sectional survey revealed that, the median age at giving the first birth in Wolkite town was 19 years of age. The logistic regression statistic indicated that age at first marriage, age at first sex, contraceptive use and education exhibited statistically significant impact on the mothers’ age at giving the first birth. Correspondingly, the chi-square test had also shown that, age at marriage, age at first sex, contraceptive use, education and work status of the women in Welkite town had a significant (p>0.001) relationship with the age at giving the first birth.Variation in age at first sexual intercourse, marriage, education, and the extent of contraception are found to be the determinant factor on the age of women at first birth. It therefore, girl’s enrolment at higher education and target family planning programs.
This study was conducted in Shebel-Berenta Woreda of East Gojjam Administrative Zone, Northwestern Ethiopia. This study mainly focused on the impact of gender on females’ education. In the study area, females’ education is highly influenced by different factors such as parental educational and economic background and socio-cultural factors. Education needs the active involvement of students to achieve its objectives. The study examined how these factors influence the educational participation and academic performance of female students in selected schools of Berenta Woreda. The study also investigated the gender-specific impact of poverty on education. Lack of educational facilities and parental financial constraints play a negative role in hindering females’ education in the study area. In addition to poverty, economic decision-making power and control over resources at the household level are examined. The education of females is affected by different factors. Among these factors, early marriage is the major one. Early marriage is the most common practice in the study area. The reasons for the practice of early marriage are depicted in the study.
According to The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS report of regional statistics for HIV/AIDS from 2001-2008, Latin America has the third highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS among children and adults in the world with about 2 million infected in 2008. Among all of these countries, Mexico has the second highest prevalence in Latin America. Another topic of public health concern associated with the boom of the younger generations in Mexico is the potential increase in unintended pregnancies. The objective of this study was to explore the factors influencing knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding reproductive health, as well as sexual risk behaviors among young adults in a rural community in Mexico. A mixed-methods investigation was conducted, including 10 closed-ended questionnaires and 10 in-depth interviews with five females and five males ranging from 18-28 years of age. Findings indicate that level of education had little influence on awareness of contraceptive methods and depth of knowledge increased only slightly with years of education. Religious affiliation was not related to contraceptive preference and/or use, and pre-marital sex was less common among females.
Agroforestry has been hailed world over as a significant ingredient in enhancing household food security, soil conservation, and curbing environmental degradation. However, the rate at which such well-indented farming practices are adopted at the household level vary from one place to another. In this book, the authors seek to demystify some of the on-farm and off-farm factors that may influence adoption of agroforestry practices among rural households in Kenya.
In recent years, researchers and policymakers have been attempting to identify factors which influence young people’s sexual behaviour so that meaningful prevention and intervention programmes can be developed. Therefore, there has been a renewed interest on the health risks of unsafe sexual behaviour among young people aged 15-24, the stage when sexual activity including risky sexual behaviour is likely to begin. This book provides useful analysis on the levels and predictors of young people’s sexual behaviour based on the 2005 Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey. It clearly demonstrates that age at first sex, age at first childbearing and condom use at first sex differ by cohort, gender, urban/rural residence, marital status, educational attainment, and province of residence. The analysis offers more insights on the timing and determinants of sexual debut, first childbearing and condom use at first sex. It is particularly useful to policymakers, development planners and anyone interested in designing appropriate interventions targeting sexually transmitted infections including HIV and AIDS and family planning programmes among young people.
After the advent of Human Development concept by UNDP, women empowerment has got lot of attention along with other holistic development concepts. Empowerment Simply means gaining control over one's lives which women of developing countries are deprived of. This index was calculated by combining achievement indexes of social, economic and political aspects of females of Pokhara Nepal. Women were categorized as per their empowerment levels and were analyzed for their cause of being lowly empowered and highly empowered. Rather than demographic traits like age, age at marriage, economic aspects like income, economic status were likely to contribute to empowerment. Still qualification, work experience and attitude towards work kept women on high self esteem and were likely to be empowered. Surprisingly husband’s attributes did not have any effect on empowerment level of females. The policies should be more focused on economic intervention in order to empower women.