Hepatitis B is a major public health problem and an infectious disease with major pathology in the liver caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV can cause acute or chronic infection. In South East Asian Region (SEAR), more than one-third of the population has been infected with HBV and 80 billion (about 6% of total population) are life long carriers. It is estimated about 200,000 deaths per year associated with Hepatitis B in this region. In Nepal there is low Hepatitis B endemicity i.e. less than 2 percent prevalence of chronic HBV infection. Since, adolescent are more vulnerable to Hepatitis B infection because of IV drug abuse, unsafe sexual practice and tattooing. A qualitative study was conducted on knowledge, attitude and perception of Hepatitis B among paramedics and non-paramedics students in District Kanchanpur, Nepal.
In Nigeria there is a high incidence rate of teenage and un wanted pregnancies by adolescents. This is largely due to the low level of knowledge and use of contraceptives. This research thus report investigated the knowledge, perception and attitude of female secondary school adolescents in Anambra state regarding contraceptives. The findings reveal that female secondary students in the state have low knowledge and negative attitude about contraceptives. Apparently, there is the need for the government to step up education and creation of awareness for contraceptives use particularly for the adolescents in Nigeria.
Hepatitis B is one of the major diseases of the mankind and a serious global public health problem. Many school children may be at high risk of the disease due to low level of awareness and their risk behavior. Teachers play a vital role to educate school students and make them aware about the disease and also the practice of vaccination plays a significant role to combat hepatitis B. Therefore, this study aims to assess the level of knowledge on hepatitis B among the health education teachers and their vaccination practice. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among all the 84 health education teachers of private schools of ward no-35 of Kathmandu metropolitan city. Self administered questionnaire was used and the primary data were collected from the respondents and the collected data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) and other simple statistical tools. Result of the study was analyzed using spss 13 version and interpreted in its usable meaning. The mean age of the respondents was 27.99 years ranging between the age group 19 to 56. Among the tot
In the past decade, alternative sources of energy have increasingly been viewed as future of energy needs because they are renewable and generally cause less environmental degradation than biomass, fossil fuel and nuclear energy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude and knowledge of secondary school students in the utilisation of alternative sources of energy for sustainable development. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study whereby the research instruments used included questionnaire and interview. Data obtained was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results showed that students have a high perception of hydroelectric power as an alternative source of energy for lighting, and were in full support of traditional source of energy for cooking. As such, they defended the continuity of charcoal burning which is a source of livelihood in the study area. It was further established that environmental education through which students are taught environmental issues has not been fully integrated in all disciplines of secondary school curriculum as recommended by the Tbilisi Declaration, 1977.
There are various psychological factors like peer pressure, HIV knowledge, attitude towards sexuality, self-esteem and risk taking behaviors were the significant predictors of HIV risk perception in youth. The findings suggest that youth who have high level of peer pressure, low level of HIV knowledge, high attitude towards sexuality, low level of self-esteem and high on risk taking behaviors are more vulnerable towards HIV risk. There was a significant gender difference in level of HIV risk perception, HIV knowledge, peer pressure, attitude towards alcohol and drug, attitude towards sexuality, and risk taking behaviors. The finding suggest that male and female differs in the level of HIV risk perception, HIV knowledge, peer pressure, attitude towards alcohol and drug, attitude towards sexuality and risk taking behaviors. This further suggests that these psychological factors might be the reason behind the high level of HIV risk perception among male as compared to their counterpart females.
A study was made to describe the knowledge and attitude towardsHIV/VCT of cadets at the Major General Haylom Araya Military Academy. It was made to see the effects of cadets'' residence, marital status and education level on cadets'' knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/VCT.To attain this a sample was randomly selected from apopulation of 595 cadets and all the available female cadets''(16) .Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicated that the majority of cadets have knowledge of HIV/VCT and shown favorable attitude towardsHIV/VCT but with some reluctance to get it.Moreover cadets didn''t show significant knowledge differences on HIV/VCT across residence and education levels but marital status.Nosignificant attitude difference was observed towards HIV/VCT across marital status and education levels except residence where urban raised cadets were seen with more favorable attitudes than rural raised cadets.Knowledge aboutHIV/VCT has not seen significantly correlated with attitude toward HIV/VCT.It was concluded that cadets had good knowledge and attitude towards HIV/VCT despite some reluctance to test their anti bodies against HIV
Knowledge about transmission of HIV and AIDS, the attitude towards the people living with AIDS has a critical impact on prevention of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Knowledge on modes of transmission, prevention alongside was assessed amongst the UEAB students in Nandi County. School based cross-sectional survey of 180 students selected through probability sampling (94 males and 86 females). A pretested questionnaire was administered to assess knowledge and attitude of the students on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge and attitude scores were generated from the students’ responses and multi variable linear regression was used to study the association of these scores with select predictor variables (notably age, year of study and school of study). Most students in the sample knew about their HIV status. A good proportion (85%) knew that AIDS is not curable. This study identified substantial lacunae in the knowledge of and attitude towards AIDS. HIV and AIDS education should be strengthened among the general population, especially among youths.
Cooperatives are becoming increasingly important to individual members, the community, the business sector, and the national economy in Ethiopia. Though cooperatives are developing by leaps and bounds in Ethiopia, the literacy levels are low among primary cooperative members and, as a result, knowledge and understanding of cooperative concepts, principles, values, and benefits within primary cooperatives needs to be further developed. The present book dovetails in appraising the level of knowledge, understanding and attitude of members towards primary agricultural cooperatives in Sidama Zone, Ethiopia.
This study empirically investigated the effects of consumer price perception dimension and reputation dimension on attitude toward private label brands among young Swedish consumers. Consumer price perception dimension includes value consciousness, price consciousness, and price-quality association factors. Reputation dimension includes retailer’s reputation, existence of word-of-mouth (WOM), positive WOM, and negative WOM. Measurement scales for consumer price perception dimensions were taken from Baltas (1997) and Burton et al. (1998). New measurement scales were developed for factors under the reputation dimension. The reliability and validity of all the factors used in the study have been discussed.
Any research claim must be supported by sound statistical outcomes. The choice of the statistical tools largely depends on the knowledge, skill and experience of the user. The advancement in the knowledge and with the introduction of sophisticated statistical techniques leads to more precise solution of the problem. In order to pursue these objectives, in this study we make use of the advance statistical techniques and take a step further in the fact finding mission. It is realized that better prognosis and awareness will be very handy in dealing with problem like hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. It poses challenges to the researchers at one hand and to the medical practitioners at the other. The task is huge, however, well co-originated effort can minimize the expected damage in the future. Lets join hands in making our plant more peaceful, more safer for the coming generations.
Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection is not taken seriously especially in developing countries.The typically newly diagnosed patient is usually young, healthy and has few or no symptoms that can be attributed to the HCV infection. Because of this, some doctors and many patients do not consider hepatitis C to be a very serious illness. Clearly, hepatitis C virus causes progressive liver disease which eventually leads to cirrhosis with its attendant risk of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and death. All that is needed to know as regard to the virus,mode of infection, therapy,diagnosis,primary and secondary preventive measures, nutrition etc are contained in this book. The knowledge obtained is also useful for those with hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus.
The present study was undertaken in urban and rural areas of Haryana state. Total sample constituted of 160 adolescents. Objectives of the present study were to assess knowledge and perception of adolescents towards domestic violence, to provide awareness program about domestic violence and to assess its impact on their knowledge and perception and finally to isolate the factors affecting domestic violence. The results about knowledge of adolescents towards domestic violence revealed that at pre-exposure majority of adolescents had poor knowledge about domestic violence Results about perception of adolescents towards domestic violence revealed that alcoholism, extra/pre marital relationship and dowry were perceived as the major causes of domestic violence by both rural and urban adolescents. Both rural and urban adolescents perceived stress, anger outburst and suicidal thoughts as the major consequences of domestic violence faced by the victims. Results about impact of awareness program revealed that there was gain in knowledge of adolescents towards every aspect of domestic violence and awareness program had a good impact on knowledge and perception of adolescents.
Viral hepatitis B and C and HIV infections do occur in Uganda. While up to 10% of Ugandans are infected with hepatitis B, 6.4% of the population are infected with HIV. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C is not clearly established. This book describes the distribution common liver diseases among the HIV infected population in Uganda. It also discusses the common problems of testing methods for viral hepatitis C with plenty of false positive antibody reactions. This causes anxiety to patients especially in a country where confirmatory tests are almost inexistent. The book goes ahead to describe liver enzyme elevations in HIV infected patients who are receiving treatment. It ends by describing consequences of HIV and hepatitis B infections in Uganda.This book is a must-read for people who are interested in hepatitis B C and HIV in resource limited settings giving a wide spectrum of information on the Ugandan situation.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most common viruses in the modern world and ranked by the WHO as one of the top ten killers. It is responsible for approximately 1.5 million deaths worldwide each year, two thirds of which are attributable to primary hepatic carcinoma following HBV infection. Hepatitis B is preventable with a safe and effective vaccine, the first vaccine against cancer due to HBV infection. The prevalence of HBV infection varies from country to country and depends upon a complex mixture of behavioral, environmental and host factors. The knowledge of the prevalence of different markers of HBV in population helps in identifying risk groups and determining the means of prevention of the transmission. The aim of this work was to find out the prevalence of various HBV serological markers and to find out the association of HBV infection with various socio-demographic characteristics of study sample, and to detect a possible association of HBV infection with various risk factors.
This study was conducted to find out teachers’ and students’ perception of and attitude towards the religious and moral education programme in senior secondary schools in the Upper-East Region of Ghana. The sample for the study consisted of 344 respondents comprising 50 teachers and 294 students. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the participants for the study. Two sets of questionnaires served as research instrument. The independent sample t-test, frequencies and percentages were the main statistical tools used in the analysis of the data. The study established some findings and made recommendations.
ABSTRACT:The aim of this research was to assess knowledge and attitude of pregnant women using ANC in both health centers.The book had the main purpose to assess and identify the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women using ANC in both health centers.The Cross-sectional and Descriptive research was conducted using structured questionnaire whereby 386 pregnant women were selected and interviewed.The x2 and Logistic Regression were used for data analysis using SPSS,whereby the statistical significance was set at p
Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) continue to be major global health priorities. Although forced displacement is believed to fuel HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries affected by conflict, factors associated with forced displacement and HIV risk in conflict-affected populations are not well understood. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to describe factors that influence risk for HIV infection in a Utah-based Burundi refugee population and (2) explore relationship between Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior/Practices (KABP) in order design targeted HIV/AIDS prevention interventions for the population. Results were controlled for known confounders. Attitude towards HIV/AIDS (b = 0.5071, p > 0.001) was a significant predictor of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Behavior/ practices were strongly associated with knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, gender, and household size. Overall, men were more knowledgeable than women and had higher self-efficacy. Women had more positive attitudes and scored higher behavior/practices.
In many developing countries, the relative contribution of various routes of blood borne hepatitis infection have not been defined in population based studies due to lack of universal and appropriate blood screening policy in these countries the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis infection is still very high. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of blood borne hepatitis B & C among blood donors by Rapid Chromatogenic Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). One hundred and ninety eight (198) samples were collected from blood donors’ population in Bida within the age range of 20 and 52 years. Twenty(10.1%) were seropositive for Hepatitis B surface antigen and Four(2.0%) were seropositive for Hepatitis C virus antibodies. Of these positive cases for Hepatitis B surface antigen, the highest frequency of 11(55%) was found among age group 30-39 years interval. There was no significant statistical difference (p>0.05) between seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen and age group among blood donors population in Bida. The findings of this study evaluate the evidence on risks and benefits of screening for all blood borne hepatitis as a policy in safe blood transfusion practice.
Ghanaian women, like many other women from the developing countries, have a low participation rate in breast cancer screening services. As a result, the disease is commonly diagnosed at late stages leading to a poor outcome with high mortality rates. The study showed a high level of knowledge deficit about the disease, which was evident from the poor appreciation of the risk factors and signs of the disease and high level of misconceptions and misinformation. Attitudes towards the disease were those of fear, superstitions, fatalism and stigma, which impact negatively on the outcome of the disease in Ghana. To improve breast cancer care in Ghana, the study makes two broad recommendations which include vigorous breast awareness and educational programmes, to teach and encourage Ghanaian women to adopt breast self-examination practices and to encourage health professionals to use every opportunity to examine their female patients as part of the overall clinical assessments. The second recommendation is the provision adequate facilities for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer to patients at an affordable cost.
Intensive agriculture and cut flower farming which are characterized by heavy use of pesticides and fertilizers has been on the increase. Despite the consequences associated with the use of pesticides, weak enforcement of laws and regulations suggest that their use will continue. There is a high possibility that Flower Farm Workers(FFW's) lack knowledge in handling, storage and use of pesticides leading to increased incidences of pesticide poisoning. This book therefore aimed at; assessing the level of knowledge and awareness of pesticide use among FFW’s; evaluating practices in pesticide handling, storage and use among FFW’s and finally; examining attitudes and perceptions towards pesticide use among FFW’s in Lake Naivasha Basin (LNB).Results indicate that a total of 77.6% of the respondents were aware of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.This book targets various groups such as the management of the flower farms, government institutions and the general public with an aim to equip them with relevant information that will assist in the decision making process.