Hepatitis B is a major public health problem and an infectious disease with major pathology in the liver caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV can cause acute or chronic infection. In South East Asian Region (SEAR), more than one-third of the population has been infected with HBV and 80 billion (about 6% of total population) are life long carriers. It is estimated about 200,000 deaths per year associated with Hepatitis B in this region. In Nepal there is low Hepatitis B endemicity i.e. less than 2 percent prevalence of chronic HBV infection. Since, adolescent are more vulnerable to Hepatitis B infection because of IV drug abuse, unsafe sexual practice and tattooing. A qualitative study was conducted on knowledge, attitude and perception of Hepatitis B among paramedics and non-paramedics students in District Kanchanpur, Nepal.
There are various psychological factors like peer pressure, HIV knowledge, attitude towards sexuality, self-esteem and risk taking behaviors were the significant predictors of HIV risk perception in youth. The findings suggest that youth who have high level of peer pressure, low level of HIV knowledge, high attitude towards sexuality, low level of self-esteem and high on risk taking behaviors are more vulnerable towards HIV risk. There was a significant gender difference in level of HIV risk perception, HIV knowledge, peer pressure, attitude towards alcohol and drug, attitude towards sexuality, and risk taking behaviors. The finding suggest that male and female differs in the level of HIV risk perception, HIV knowledge, peer pressure, attitude towards alcohol and drug, attitude towards sexuality and risk taking behaviors. This further suggests that these psychological factors might be the reason behind the high level of HIV risk perception among male as compared to their counterpart females.
In Nigeria there is a high incidence rate of teenage and un wanted pregnancies by adolescents. This is largely due to the low level of knowledge and use of contraceptives. This research thus report investigated the knowledge, perception and attitude of female secondary school adolescents in Anambra state regarding contraceptives. The findings reveal that female secondary students in the state have low knowledge and negative attitude about contraceptives. Apparently, there is the need for the government to step up education and creation of awareness for contraceptives use particularly for the adolescents in Nigeria.
Hepatitis B is one of the major diseases of the mankind and a serious global public health problem. Many school children may be at high risk of the disease due to low level of awareness and their risk behavior. Teachers play a vital role to educate school students and make them aware about the disease and also the practice of vaccination plays a significant role to combat hepatitis B. Therefore, this study aims to assess the level of knowledge on hepatitis B among the health education teachers and their vaccination practice. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among all the 84 health education teachers of private schools of ward no-35 of Kathmandu metropolitan city. Self administered questionnaire was used and the primary data were collected from the respondents and the collected data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) and other simple statistical tools. Result of the study was analyzed using spss 13 version and interpreted in its usable meaning. The mean age of the respondents was 27.99 years ranging between the age group 19 to 56. Among the tot
Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection is not taken seriously especially in developing countries.The typically newly diagnosed patient is usually young, healthy and has few or no symptoms that can be attributed to the HCV infection. Because of this, some doctors and many patients do not consider hepatitis C to be a very serious illness. Clearly, hepatitis C virus causes progressive liver disease which eventually leads to cirrhosis with its attendant risk of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and death. All that is needed to know as regard to the virus,mode of infection, therapy,diagnosis,primary and secondary preventive measures, nutrition etc are contained in this book. The knowledge obtained is also useful for those with hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus.
In many developing countries, the relative contribution of various routes of blood borne hepatitis infection have not been defined in population based studies due to lack of universal and appropriate blood screening policy in these countries the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis infection is still very high. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of blood borne hepatitis B & C among blood donors by Rapid Chromatogenic Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). One hundred and ninety eight (198) samples were collected from blood donors’ population in Bida within the age range of 20 and 52 years. Twenty(10.1%) were seropositive for Hepatitis B surface antigen and Four(2.0%) were seropositive for Hepatitis C virus antibodies. Of these positive cases for Hepatitis B surface antigen, the highest frequency of 11(55%) was found among age group 30-39 years interval. There was no significant statistical difference (p>0.05) between seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen and age group among blood donors population in Bida. The findings of this study evaluate the evidence on risks and benefits of screening for all blood borne hepatitis as a policy in safe blood transfusion practice.
There is much difference of opinion among Indian Epistemologists as to what the ultimate sources of human knowledge are. For the Carvakas, who are radical empiricists. Pratyaksa or perception is the only valid source of knowledge and all valid knowledge comes from perception. The Buddhists and the Vaisesikas hold that pratyaksa or perception and anumana or inference are the ultimate sources of valid knowledge. According to Samkhya and the Yoga systems, sabda or verbal testimony also should be recognized as an independent source of knowledge like perception and inference. The Samkhya includes upamana and arthapatti under inference, and abhava under perception. Naiyayikas are in favour of the view that there are four independent sources of knowledge namely, perception, inference, verbal testimony and comparison. According to them, the other sources of knowledge namely arthapatti or presumption and anupalabdhi or non-apprehension recognized by the systems of Mimamsa and Vedanta may be included within these four and so need not be taken as ultimate or independent sources of knowledge. The Prabhakara School of Purva Mimamsa adds arthapatti or presumption to the list of four prama
Hepatitis B is the most important infectious occupational disease for the health care workers. This book presents the detailed review of literature regarding the hepatitis B virus, implications for dental health care workers, vaccines and vaccination schedules. The book emphasizes about hepatitis B vaccination and monitoring of post vaccination immunity status. In this book we have also discussed about the factors responsible for the low anti –HBS titre. This book would serve as a useful reference for health care professionals regarding hepatitis B immunization.
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection. It may be present in recent infection, relatively rapid onset (acute) or long-lasting (chronic) forms. The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the hepatotropic viruses whose primary tissue tropism is the liver. In human, at least five hepatitis viruses are named alphabetically: hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis D(HDV) and hepatitis E (HEV). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major global health problems that cause acute and chronic hepatitis in human. Chronic HBV in infection is most commonly defined as as chronic necroinflammatory disease hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis D(HDV) and hepatitis E (HEV). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major global health problems that cause acute and chronic hepatitis in human. Chronic HBV in infection is most commonly defined as as chronic necroinflammatory disease
The present study was undertaken in urban and rural areas of Haryana state. Total sample constituted of 160 adolescents. Objectives of the present study were to assess knowledge and perception of adolescents towards domestic violence, to provide awareness program about domestic violence and to assess its impact on their knowledge and perception and finally to isolate the factors affecting domestic violence. The results about knowledge of adolescents towards domestic violence revealed that at pre-exposure majority of adolescents had poor knowledge about domestic violence Results about perception of adolescents towards domestic violence revealed that alcoholism, extra/pre marital relationship and dowry were perceived as the major causes of domestic violence by both rural and urban adolescents. Both rural and urban adolescents perceived stress, anger outburst and suicidal thoughts as the major consequences of domestic violence faced by the victims. Results about impact of awareness program revealed that there was gain in knowledge of adolescents towards every aspect of domestic violence and awareness program had a good impact on knowledge and perception of adolescents.
Environmental Variables: A study in West Bengal, India is primarily a research thesis, which considered environmental knowledge, environmental attitude and psychosocial development as the variables of concern among the target group - the secondary school students of the study area. The study revealed several knowledge gaps among the students with regards to environmental knowledge, in spite of the efforts that go into including such studies within their curriculum framework. The study also highlighted the correlation between environmental knowledge and attitude and also with psychosocial development in the studied groups. The findings point towards the fact that the efforts of increasing environmental knowledge being restricted to simple inclusion within the syllabus does not really reflect in the attitude and behavior of the students, instead attempts to increase their participation in environmental matters or activities can influence their attitude and behavior towards a more pro-environmental inclinations.
Conducting research in higher education concerning environmental issues is very important. Since it increases the knowledge, attitude and awareness of the communities of the higher institution towards the environmental issues in general and solid waste management in particular. So, it is my pleasure to notify about this work as, it is very important which makes us familiar with the knowledge and attitude of the students and teachers towards solid waste management. This book was conducted in the higher education for understanding the knowledge and attitude of the students and teachers towards solid waste management, in the study area. Hence, understanding the knowledge and attitude of students and teachers enables to enhance the awareness, knowledge and attitude of the respondents (study populations) about the environmental issues in general and solid waste management in particular. And also, it is important to suggest the possible ways of enhancing the knowledge, attitude and awareness about the environmental issues in the general and solid waste management issues in particular. MAKE THE ENVIRONMENT CLEAN AND GREEN!
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been identified as a causative agent for the majority of parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis(Kazuaki Takahashi et al,1992) .The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a prevalent infectious disease(Xie Li et al,2007). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common chronic blood born infection in,and is involved in 40% of chronic liver disease. HCV was initially isolated from the serum of a person with non-A, non-B hepatitis in 1989 by Choo et al. This newly found virus was discovered to be the cause of approximately 90% of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection afflicts more than 170-200 million people worldwide, with the great majority of patients with acute hepatitis C developing chronic HCV infection. It can ultimately result in liver cirrhosis, hepatic failure or hepatocellular carcinoma, which are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year (Stephane Chevaliez et al). Chronic hepatitis C is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States (U.S.), Australia, and most of Europe.
Viral hepatitis B and C and HIV infections do occur in Uganda. While up to 10% of Ugandans are infected with hepatitis B, 6.4% of the population are infected with HIV. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C is not clearly established. This book describes the distribution common liver diseases among the HIV infected population in Uganda. It also discusses the common problems of testing methods for viral hepatitis C with plenty of false positive antibody reactions. This causes anxiety to patients especially in a country where confirmatory tests are almost inexistent. The book goes ahead to describe liver enzyme elevations in HIV infected patients who are receiving treatment. It ends by describing consequences of HIV and hepatitis B infections in Uganda.This book is a must-read for people who are interested in hepatitis B C and HIV in resource limited settings giving a wide spectrum of information on the Ugandan situation.
Robert Hanna works out a unified contemporary Kantian theory of rational human cognition and knowledge, which develops new lines of thought in philosophy of perception. Along the way, he provides original accounts of intentionality, sense perception and perceptual knowledge, the analytic-synthetic distinction, the nature of logic, and the a priori.
Hepatitis-B infection screening is an important component of blood safety programme and no blood is issued for transfusion without testing for five transfusion transmittable diseases e.g. hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C, HIV, Malaria and Syphilis. India, with a carrier rate of 4%, contributes nearly 10% of the HBV carriers in the world. In India with 25 million live births each year, nearly 1 million HBV infections are added to the HBV pool yearly, contributing to its rapid expansion. A study of voluntary blood donors for Hepatitis B in the state of Uttar Pradesh, revealed that 2.3 percent of the donor are hepatitis carriers and 94.7% of them are males. Since the seropositivity trends in donors of state blood bank in Himachal Pradesh were not known, we reviewed secondary data of state blood bank Shimla to: (i) estimate prevalence of Hepatitis-B infection in healthy blood donors, (ii) describe time, place and person characteristics of HBV prevalence and (ii) recommend measures to reduce it. It was found that decline in seropositivity among blood donors over time was because there was more number of voluntary donations and strict pre donation medical scrutiny of the blood donors.
A study was made to describe the knowledge and attitude towardsHIV/VCT of cadets at the Major General Haylom Araya Military Academy. It was made to see the effects of cadets'' residence, marital status and education level on cadets'' knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/VCT.To attain this a sample was randomly selected from apopulation of 595 cadets and all the available female cadets''(16) .Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicated that the majority of cadets have knowledge of HIV/VCT and shown favorable attitude towardsHIV/VCT but with some reluctance to get it.Moreover cadets didn''t show significant knowledge differences on HIV/VCT across residence and education levels but marital status.Nosignificant attitude difference was observed towards HIV/VCT across marital status and education levels except residence where urban raised cadets were seen with more favorable attitudes than rural raised cadets.Knowledge aboutHIV/VCT has not seen significantly correlated with attitude toward HIV/VCT.It was concluded that cadets had good knowledge and attitude towards HIV/VCT despite some reluctance to test their anti bodies against HIV
Knowledge about transmission of HIV and AIDS, the attitude towards the people living with AIDS has a critical impact on prevention of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Knowledge on modes of transmission, prevention alongside was assessed amongst the UEAB students in Nandi County. School based cross-sectional survey of 180 students selected through probability sampling (94 males and 86 females). A pretested questionnaire was administered to assess knowledge and attitude of the students on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge and attitude scores were generated from the students’ responses and multi variable linear regression was used to study the association of these scores with select predictor variables (notably age, year of study and school of study). Most students in the sample knew about their HIV status. A good proportion (85%) knew that AIDS is not curable. This study identified substantial lacunae in the knowledge of and attitude towards AIDS. HIV and AIDS education should be strengthened among the general population, especially among youths.
Most European countries have effective control and vaccination programs against hepatitis B but still, hepatitis B persist in certain risk groups. In Europe the prevailing genotypes of hepatitis B are subgenotpes A2, D1, D2 and D3. Subgenotypes A2 and D2 are transmitted back and forth from East to South West Europe, illicit heroin traffic routes that exist from Afghanistan running to Russia through Central Asia and finally to the rest of Europe are a predisposing factor for the observed transmission pattern. Subgenotype D1 is widely spread in Europe with no definite transmission pattern, meanwhile subgenotype D3 is typically present in East and South West Europe and is mainly transmitted via intravenous drug use. Using complete sequenced genomes obtained from GeneBank, possible transmission pattern of hepatitis B Virus in the European region were established and reasons for the observed transmission pattern of hepatitis B Virus were accounted for.
ABSTRACT:The aim of this research was to assess knowledge and attitude of pregnant women using ANC in both health centers.The book had the main purpose to assess and identify the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women using ANC in both health centers.The Cross-sectional and Descriptive research was conducted using structured questionnaire whereby 386 pregnant women were selected and interviewed.The x2 and Logistic Regression were used for data analysis using SPSS,whereby the statistical significance was set at p