Scheduled Tribes(STs) constitute one of the Socially Excluded sections of contemporary India. Among them the numerically small Primitive Tribes(PTGs) are most vulnerable. In the post Independence era integrating these communities in the process of nation building through development has been a major challenge to India. The present work tries to provide a comprehensive picture of the development scenario of four main primitive tribes of Tamil Nadu viz., Badaga, Kota, Kurumba and Irula from global policy perspectives of human development and social exclusion. This book also addresses the substantive research questions on development and integration of tribal communities by extending the UNDPs human development and IILS social exclusion perspectives by employing quantitative and qualitative methods. This book will be of great use to social policy makers, social workers, and Civil society organisations interested in the development of indigenous populations all over the world.
This book brings to light several facets of deprivation and exclusionary processes concerning primary education among Scheduled Tribes in India. The principal actors in the arena of education- the children, the parents, the educators and the state exhibit overlapping conditions that correspond to accumulation confluent processes that form a circle of exclusion of Scheduled Tribes. The situation results in the constitutive relevance of exclusion by which the Scheduled Tribe children suffer the inability to relate to the levels of educational achievement of the children belonging to the non-tribes. Based on intensive field work in Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, this work explores the key issues involved in the exclusion of Scheduled Tribes in India. It offers a fresh approach to understand the disadvantages of Scheduled Tribes regarding their Primary education.
The Primitive tribes which are totally depending on forest resources for their livelihoods currently affected with the problem of deforestation. Large majority of them are facing the problems of poverty and food insecurity. Deforestation is an environmental issue and the primitive tribes are struggling hard to eke out their livelihoods in the degraded forest environment. The present study is mainly focused on this problem and tries to provide solution through the empirical research carried out among the three primitive tribes like Khond, Porja and Gadaba of Andhra Pradesh in India. This book basically deals with the primitive tribes and their environment, developmental programs and strategies for their sustainable livelihoods and development .This book is intended to be of interest to all those who are interested to know about Eco- friendly relations with forest, indigenous knowledge and practices in conservation of natural resources and livelihoods of primitive tribes of India, especially those in the disciplines of Anthropology and Sociology.
This edited volume is a collection of six original articles discussing diverse aspects of marginalization of India’s most marginalized sections such as Dalits and indigenous tribes. It covers the thematic areas such as role of tribal indigenous knowledge in conservation of nature and environment, development induced displacement and rehabilitation of tribes, health modernity among tribes, children of tribal unwed mothers and exclusion of Dalits in social institutions.
Social exclusion is a complex and multi-dimensional process. "Multi-Dimensions of Social Exclusion in India" focuses largely on social exclusion in the context of social groups who have or have not been considered in discussing the benefits of mainstream inclusive society or development. This book is the most comprehensive attempt to examine the social exclusion in multi-dimensional way and the policies necessary to tackle it. The study covers the dimensions of social exclusion among social groups in India. The multidisciplinary nature of the book will render it helpful to students and researchers of sociology, anthropology, historical and political studies, demography, social work and gender studies in particular and the humanities in general.
The book highlights the situation of Tribal India. It has specific reference about the core issues of Tribal life related to the economy, education, customs, forest rights, political decentralization, and informal justice delivery mechanisms, etc. After so many years of the Constitution making, the tribal people are still far away from the mainstream of Indian society.The fight for jal, jungle and jamin is still continuing threatening every time the traditional social and cultural fabrics of tribal masses of the country. The author has made critical observation on the policy approaches as adopted by the planners of country for the welfare of tribal masses of the country. The book will really be useful for the students of Anthropology and Sociology, Civil Services aspirants, and all those who have keen interest in tribal studies.
India has always been described as a “melting pot” of races and culture. Tribal in India is the most glaring example exploitation indifferences and lack of appreciation for our divergent minority groups. The present study is an attempt to study the enthnohistoric and historiographic literature available on various aspects of culture and society among diverse tribes across the world and the Indian subcontinent and reveal the paucity of ethnohistoric and historiographic research in India, especially the cultural aspects of tribes in Andhra Pradesh. According to the 1991 census the tribal population of India is 6,77,58, 380 constituting nearly 8.08 per cent to total population of the country. There are about 500 tribes in India existing and ethnogrpahic accounts cover a vast majority of the tribes. All these ethnographic accounts provide brief ethnohistoric descriptions of the tribes, all by way of passing references. As such studies wholly devoted to an examination of the history of the tribes are few. Even the historians have not made any considerable effort to depict the historiography of the tribes in India.
Tribal communities are at cross roads especially in the context of development, in a developing country like India, the situation worsens as they still find it difficult to adjust with the prevailing situation and changes happening around them. This book tries understand the distribution and access to basic amenities among scheduled tribes, and try to understand how far the development process have penetrated in the interior parts of the country, where scheduled Tribes, the most deprived section of the country resides. Book give an insight to the situation of scheduled tribes in india.and can be handy for student of social geography, anthropology, and sociology and for those, who are intrested in studies related to regional development.
The book deals with a range of issues of current interests in agricultural development of tribes. The research papers in this volume are based on analysis of micro level, analytical and macro level studies with focus in different states of India. The volume is organized into five major sections: • Globalization Issues • Land Issues • Women and Economy • Agricultural Development • Development Agencies The book provides insights on recent agricultural problems in globalization scenario, exploitation of tribals, land alienation, land policies for secure rights, forest rights act. It also examines cropping patterns, use of pest and fertilizers, practices of organic farming, women participation in economic activities, women success story, women work force and decision making by tribal women. The book also addresses critical globalization issues such as poverty, unemployment, and indebtedness among tribes. The book is of importance not just to agriculturalists but to other social scientists, planners, policy makers and administrators, intellectuals and students of economics, economics of tribal studies and agricultural science as well.
This book views negative perceptions, representations and attributions of identities by individuals and social groups critically dispose them to disability experience in psychological and social realm of life. In fact, such perceptions, representations and attribution enable individuals and groups to realize and cherish ‘who we are?’ and ‘where we belong to?’ But when these attributions and perceptions are well connected to a recent history of subordination and servitude and an ongoing restriction on, or deprivation from meeting basic needs, it leads to negative non-dominant identity representations. This would in turn results in stigmatization and discrimination of individuals and groups in the contexts of family, neighbourhood and communities. Non-dominant identity representations further results in structural exclusion of such individuals and groups from fundamental social institutions such as educational, health, religious and justice institutions. From this background this edited volume discusses how negative non-dominant identity induces and maintains social exclusion of women who hold multiple discrediting social identities in India.
Despite strong growth, India lags far behind other BRIC countries in social sector achievements, spending lowest on education and health, according to a study by the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHASM). Brazil, Russia, India and China are collectively known as the BRIC economies. The Assocham Eco Pulse (AEP) study showed that India public expenditure on health and education stood at five percent and 9.2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) respectively in 2005-06 fiscal. While Brazil and Russia spent 7.9 per cent and 5.2 per cent respectively on health in fiscal 2006, India is a notch above China with public expenditure on education reaching five per cent of GDP. Surprisingly, China ranked lowest among the BRIC countries with a minimal share of 4.9 per cent of health spending. “India needs to keep its pace with other developing countries in its social sector development, to meet the twin objectives of rapid progress and inclusive growth. We need to invest in more quality education and health services,” Assocham president Sajjan Jindal said.
This collection of essays present an intellectual platform to map the current understanding of Indian tribes in social science writing, and to outline the key debates over tribal identities and categorization, state policies towards tribes and their ground reality, and impact of current developmental models on tribals human rights, livelihood, well-being and security, and politics.
Exclusion may be the outcome of an entrenched, complex socio-economic and political process. In a plural society marked by differentiation, a hierarchical structure and stereotypes, it is all the more complex. Exclusion is dysfunctional and blocks potential for development. Societies eager to further democratic values and ethos of inclusive development should be able to deal proactively with exclusion and the dominance of certain sections over others. The book is based on an in-depth study of the dynamics of exclusion and social assessment in India''s Bihar state. Bihar''s is a plural society with a hierarchical structure and marginalization of certain sections. The government has initiated several initiatives to mainstream the marginalized. The study was carried out as a precursor to World Bank funded livelihoods project in six districts of Bihar. The book would be of interest to the donors, policy makers, development professionals, government functionaries and civil society. The findings can be used as reference while examining and analysing the dynamics of exclusion, and planning interventions for inclusive development in plural societies.
Tribal's are the primitive resident of India, lived in isolation & facing no. of problems like economy, education, communication, urbanization, and health issues. They are poor, unhealthy, malnourished, so improvement of their health is vital for sustenance. The book explored the health status of 02 primitive tribes i.e.Santhal & Sabar in India in comparative basis along with several correlated socioeconomic, communication & socio-psychological factors which depleted the health & development aspect of tribes. It also express various interrelated sociocultural features & improvement of which upgrade the nutritional status of tribal community though applying social emperical survey research methodology in comparative basis.
Tribal development is a vital social need in India. Because tribes are highly marginalized people of India and some of whom are on the verge of extinction and many are suffering from various types of human deprivations and exploitations. So the Government of India has been trying seriously to provide protection to tribal people and it has also been implementing various programmes for tribal development.In this sense, the various tribal development programmes and the role of their implementation agencies like Govt. Co-operatives, N G Os, and other Organizations need to be evaluated scientifically. In this book, I have written five chapters, in the first chapter designed the work, and in the second chapter analyzed the literature relating the present study, in the third chapter analyzed and evaluated the tribal development policies, plans and programmes for the tribal development in India since 1950 to 2011-12. The fourth Chapter evaluates the NGOs related policies and programmes. The last chapter shows the findings and policy suggestions relating the tribal development in India. This book is very useful to the planners, policy makers, students, Researches, and NGOs.
After Africa India comprises a largest mass of natives (tribes) in the world. Amongst, the de-notified and nomadic tribes (DNTs) are an essential element of the Indian native’s society. Nevertheless, ethnographic research have been conducted on some of them, it is only comparatively new that they are finding a few citations in academic and non-academic discourses across India. The Government of India has Constituted National Commission for De-notified, Nomadic and Semi Nomadic tribes to shed light on various developmental issues for these Tribes. Social inclusion of the denotified communities is a very important concern of the every government. Various Governments have initiated noted social policies and programames to bring DNTs in to the main stream of the society. Originally this book is a collection of articles presented In the national conference on Denotified tribes and this book presents the social , educational and general conditions of the denotified tribes and suggests ways and means to improve their quality of life. This book would be useful to policy makers, academic sections, researchers, NGOs and general public.
Gender distinction is a common phenomenon in human society. It is used for studying the role of males and females in intra and inter household dynamics within a farming system. The women contribute 71 per cent of labour force in livestock farming. Van Gujjars are one of the well known pastoral community known for their traditional and noble profession of dairy farming. Very few studies specifically focused on Gujjar women in dairy farming practices are available, realizing the importance of gender analysis in dairy farming practices among Gujjar tribes of Uttarakhand state were conducted. The study provides the realistic information on the role of farm women and their contributions in dairy husbandry in the rural social system. The study suggests several far-reaching implications to the extension planners, policy makers, academicians, scientists and rural social workers for training and transferring the livestock based technology to the actual users.
Education is the most important element in the development and realization of rights of human beings. Illiteracy leads to under¬development and non-utilization of natural resources to the best advantage of the Human beings. The investigator tried to study and analyze the impact of education of Khond tribe, which is one of the Primitive Tribal Groups in Visakhapatnam district. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled tribes are the most disadvantaged sections of the society and they lack education due to various reasons. The socio-economic status of these sections of society forced them to distance themselves from the education. Various Governmental Policies addressing these sections of Society could not achieve the desired results of education for them. The analysis also covered the areas of absenteeism, stagnation and wastage among the Khond children. The prime factor was noticed to be socio-economic conditions of the Khond Tribals.
Human Development and Population in India covers a range of human development and population related issues specific to Madhya Pradesh, one of the least developed states of the country. It covers pertinent human development issues - social class and regional disparities, child deprivation, poverty trends and differentials, economic growth, health and longevity, elementary education and as contemporary population concerns - transition in the age and sex structure of the population, fertility and child mortality. The topics covered in the monograph highlight the prevailing human development scenario and the progress in population transition in the state. The monograph emphasises integration of programmes and interventions directed towards hastening the pace of population transition with human development processes and calls for creating, strengthening and sustaining institutions to build up the capacity in this regard.
India is one of the most stratified societies in the world. Social, economic and cultural differentiation in India is represented by the institutions of caste, class and tribe. These characteristics also makes India a closed society where it is very difficult for individuals to move upwards from their class of origin. This piece of research details the status of education and social mobility among the SC/BT community of union territory of Puducherry in India. Most of the people living here, especially SC/BT community, are not even aware of the facilities available under government assistance in their state for accessing education. Those who live in village are engaged in menial manual work. They do not mingle with other (caste) people. Their education would stop at primary level and they are never aware of significance of attaining education. This book presents a detailed account of SC/BT community of Union Territory of Puducherry in India. The extent of educational and occupational mobility is measured to understand the persistence of inequality. Several questions are raised on the link between education and social mobility.