Men and women are involved in agriculture at different levels and in different ways in both urban and rural areas. In Africa, 80% of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, who are mostly rural women. Among the key highlights of this book is that women are invisible significant actors in the horticulture industry in Kenya but are shockingly rather employed on casual basis or on short seasonal contracts. This study offers new knowledge on gender and entrepreneurship as a crucial area for understanding societal dynamics hence aid in the process of designing policies that will help in the growth of the sector and contribute towards gender mainstreaming.
Since the mid-1980s, trade liberalisation has encouraged the growth of Australia’s international trade. The Australian wine industry has been successful in the world wine market, achieving a significant growth in production and export sales since the 1990s. In this context, this book attempts to provide a comprehensive analysis of the patterns and determinants of Australia’s international trade in wines. The general aim is to analyse the Australian wine industry based on the economic theories of inter-industry trade and intra-industry trade and to model wine export and import relationships.
This book is based on key concepts of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) which are relevant to the Kenyan situation. There is a disparity between Kenya''s experiences and that of the developed world. The ensuing disparity in world mergers and acquisitions and Kenya in particular forms the basis of this study. Bidder characteristics, industry variables and market variables were included in an exploratory survey of six firms listed in financial and Industrial sectors listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange. At 0.05 significant levels, regression results averagely showed an impressive prediction of R squared value ranging from 0.667 to 0.999. Profitability was the most influential variable in determining growth of firms through M&A in Kenya. Industry concentration, sales growth, stock market index and GDP growth only determined growth to a lesser Extent. Based on the findings, it was concluded that listed The book will appeal to scholars,researchers, policy makers, investors and business executives.
The study examined export performance and economic growth in Ethiopia, using a multivariate time series approach within a production function framework for the period 1960/61 to 2003/04. Consistent with expectations, export growth was positively related with output growth, regardless of the specification of the export variable. This work will help policy makers design appropriate initiatives, and will serve as a reference to subsequent research efforts in the area of export-led growth. It will be of great interest to academics and researchers of international economics, growth, development, and national and international development agencies.
This book presents a detailed account of the evolution of supply chain management, the concept and the factors influencing simultaneous optimization of supply networks in the floriculture industry is given. The area of complex adaptive systems is explored and the link with the floriculture industry in Kenya is shown. A review of current studies is done on the subject of supply chain management and particularly the various conceptual frameworks/models developed by a number of researchers around the world. The supply chain performance measurement and the requirements for model building are also discussed.
The study is conducted to find the different problems faced by the sports goods industry in Jalandhar, India It analyses the competition faced by Indian sports goods industry in the global market, along with it finds the direction and composition of Indian sports goods exports. Study also evaluates the role played by Government in general, and Sports Goods Export Promotion Council in particular, in the promotion of exports of sports goods industry.
This book compiles the empirical study of income-export growth relationship. Income-export relationship has received greater importance in recent years. It arises from the fact that achieving high income growth rate is considered to be the main objective and task for the government of a country. As a matter of fact, the prime objective of the economic management in the South Asian Countries is to attain and maintain high income growth rate. The South Asian Countries are basically ‘developing’ nations. These are trying to get out of the ‘vicious circle of poverty’ through attainment of higher income growth. Sri Lanka is a member of SAARC. This country, a sea-locked country, has been bountifully blessed with a scope of successfully carrying on international trade at a cheaper cost. Consequently export promotion exercises constitute a noticeable economic program for this country. The findings of the study confirms ‘Unidirectional Causality’ running from economic growth to export growth in the economy of Sri Lanka over the period 1970-2005. By 2025 export shocks would account for 21% of total variations in income growth.
Gender and Cinema is the first comprehensive look at Kenya's Film Industry. It traces the history of film making in Kenya, from the perspective of native filmmakers participation in the enterprise. It also explores genre discourses for the industry and its operational dynamics. Finally, it mediates gender dialogues as conveyed in four selected Riverwood films and analyzed in this work. The author argues that this clearly comedy-driven Kenya's film industry is fragmented and without clear united focus. Further, it operates on shoe-string budget and paced out technological tools. And in the area of gender representation, Riverwood films alienate the female character in a vast but consistent manner. However, this work is like an observer's memo, inviting many other voices to the dialogue.
This book sets out the historical context of the current food legislation in Kenya showing the historical connection of Kenyan food law with the British food law system on which it is largely based for format. It illustrates the mechanisms through which Kenya formulates, develops and enforces its food laws and discusses the various processes through which food legislation is achieved. It examines enactment, enforcement, the role of the Kenya Bureau of Standards, and other regulatory agencies, as well as the various influences on food legislation in Kenya. The book also briefly deals with international food legislation while examining any influences these food laws may have had on the current Kenya food law system and may have in the future. The broad requirements of food import/export control systems as modelled on the work of the Codex Food Import/Export Inspection and Certification Committee are also covered adequately. It is written for final year students of Food Science and Technology, Food Marketing, Food Law and practitioners in the food industry as well as post- graduate students of Food Science and Food Law.
The most basic need of people is accompanied by textile and clothing industry, so it has a great importance in every one’s life and for this T&C industry has to maintain sustained growth for improving quality of life.Textile and Clothing exports is influenced by many global and domestic factors so this book particularly focus on the main determinants of textile and clothing exports of Pakistan. With this the Performance of T&C exports of Pakistan has also been measured by using Blassa Index and the comparison of export performance of Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Indonesia has also been made which shows their competitiveness in international market both in textile and clothing sectors. Strengths, weaknesses and challenges for Pakistan textile and clothing industry have been analyzed by giving some suggestions to compete more efficiently in world textile and clothing market
The production of Citrus has considerably increased during the past years due mainly to an increased demand for the fruit both in the domestic and international markets. Despite greater demand, the potential of Citrus export has not been fully reaped. The present study was undertaken to estimate the past trend in its production and export by the log-log model. World demand and supply for Pakistani citrus is specified in log-log form. That showed relationship between export of citrus and its determinants. This study suggests the need for taking measure to increase export of Citrus to potential international markets by improving quality, packaging and following the international standards required under various agreements of World Trade Organization (WTO).
The global steel industry is highly cyclical and very competitive. Currently the industry is going through a consolidation phase. Indian steel industry has shown the second highest growth rate for steel production and consumption in Asia after China. With a GDP growth of 9% in 2010-11. This book gives a detailed analysis of steel industry transformation in India. It looks into the factors that have influenced the industry over a period of time like steel production & consumption, export-import, Labour productivity and per capita consumption etc at global and national level. In this book the author explains business overview and performance facts of Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL) for better understanding of the competitive environment in the industry. This Book analysis what will be the future demand and production capacity for steel industry, what are the growth opportunities for the steel manufacturers, what are the major driving factors and what will be the major constraints for future growth of steel industry. The Book is endowed with latest information and developments and helpful to the Academicians, Researchers, Industry, Policy Makers and Entrepreneurs.
One of the key concerns for enterprise development in Kenya has been to enhance the role of indigenous entrepreneurs in the economy. Since independence the government of Kenya has put in place measures to this end. However, the impacts on performance of entrepreneurs have not been studied. Therefore, this book attempts to highlight the important factors that influence performance and business growth in two printing firms, one owned by an African and the other by an Asian entrepreneur. The focus is on the contribution of education, training and experience on business operations. The book identifies some of the constraints to entrepreneurship development in Kenya and also outlines policy measures to deal with them at both the firm and government levels including access to capital or credit, management and technical training, and business counseling.
Ethiopia is an agriculture-based economy that has experienced remarkable economic growth nearly for the last one decade. There are various approaches to achieve this target of which one strategy is to promote exports of the country. At this juncture, an important issue immediately comes to the minds of economists and researchers, that is, whether export promotion leads to higher economic growth or economic growth promotes exports. Some studies support the ELG hypothesis, others support the GDE hypothesis and still others support the bidirectional relationship between the two. In Ethiopia, very little academic literature exists that shows the nexus between export and economic growth. Therefore, in this study, we examine the dynamic relationship of two components of exports (agricultural exports and non-agricultural exports) with economic growth by using different time series Econometric Techniques like Johanson Cointegration test and VECM. The analysis should help as a reference to subsequent research works especially to professionals in economics fields, or anyone else who is interested to undertake further study on the issue.
Coffee is Rwanda’s premier export oriented crop and is a source of foreign currency. A study was conducted to analyse the Performance of Production and Export of Coffee from Rwanda. The time series data on production, area, productivity and export were collected for the period ranging from 1976 to 2010. They were split into two distinctive periods for the analysis of the growth rate and for the analysis of instability. The exponential model was employed to compute the compound growth rates; the Chow test was applied to check the structural change, instability indices and Hazell’s decomposition model were employed to measure instability and their source. Markov chain analysis was used to analyze the direction of trade. The growth in area under coffee declined from 2.5 per cent in first period to -1.03 percent in second period. The growth rate in productivity as well as production during second period shows an increase rate from -3.60 per cent to 2.73 percent and from 0.15 to 1.33 percent respectively. Chow test showed a structural change both in area and export quantity growth rates. Insatiability indices showed that export quantity was more stable when compared to export value.
The current demographic shift of the Kenya ageing population, stress an increasing demand for pension schemes in all employment sectors. Unlike Kenya all over the world there have been pension reforms to arrest this population trend since it threatens the sustainability of the country?s economy. The laws currently governing the pension industry do not encourage mandatory setting up of pension scheme by registered companies, small-scale enterprises and any other organisation in Kenya. Currently we have very many company and registered organisation that do not have retirement benefits plan or any other old age saving for the current employed workforce. This creates a risk of having future old age population that is dependant to the working population. For the purpose of this research I am cross examining at the various types of pension scheme in Kenya particularly the private pension scheme and the growth of the pension funds over a given period. Furthermore, this research project also examines the current private sector employee and expected future growth modelled based on generalized linear model.
Organised manufacturing sector is considered as an engine of growth. The experience of developed countries showed that this sector played a vital role in overall development of their economies. Manufacturing secotr is the only sector through which developing countries make their growth rapid and reoliable. This book deals with organised manufacturing secotr of Punjab state in India. The analysis of organised manufacturing sector reveals that industrial situation in the state was promising during pre-reform period but here was a dismal scenario in the post-reform period. Organised manufactuirng sector of punjab suffered from 'jobless growth' druing post-reform period. Food industry which has the vast potential could not grow up due to laxity of State Government. Restricitions of multifiber agriment under world trade organisation are done away with; hence inernational market may provide huge opportunities to export textile products.Punjab's industry was and continues to be export based. the situation demands for restructuring of insutrial pattern and process, which can help to resolve the structural problems of existing models of growth.
The vast body of literature asserts that FDI helps to promote economic growth through various channels. However, mixed empirical evidences are prevalent contradicting these theoretical prescriptions making the role of FDI in promoting growth and curing development problems controversial. Such conflicting evidence is not exception to Ethiopian economy. Moreover, in Ethiopian context, studies on sectoral export versus FDI are also scanty. Therefore, the purpose of this research work is to study the relationships of FDI with real gross domestic product and export both at aggregate and sectoral level. The book has five chapters: the introductory chapter, review of related literature chapter, chapter three is about theoretical frame, methodology and data description, chapter four is the empirical analysis comprising descriptive, econometric, and causality relationship. The final chapter presents major findings and conclusions. The analyses inform the outcomes of FDI both at aggregate and sector level to policy makers and those working in the area; moreover, it is useful for professional and academic researchers to address FDI related policy issues through further studies.
This publication is a cumulative presentation of the results of the survey about the internationalization activities and main drivers of the most export-active enterprises in Slovenia. Based on the sample of 108 usable responses, the first part of the publication presents the findings related to main internationalization categories in terms of operation modes, market selection, main barriers and motives for internationalization, industry and environments, branding, international orientation of top management, companies’ strategic orientation, risk and innovation. The second part presents the basic relationships in terms of correlations between main internationalization determinants (brands, innovation, domestic and foreign industry characteristics, foreign environment, strategy, management international orientation and firm characteristics) and internationalizations outcomes (scale and scope of internationalization). Based on the results, different implications are provided.
This project focused on analysis of gender perspectives in the implementation of the millennium development goals (MDGs) in developing countries. The objective of the study are four fold: to establish extent to which feminization of poverty has been sustained by gender insensitive practices in Kenya; to assess the extent to which millennium development goals (3) principles have been integrated and mainstreamed in Kenya’s national development policies and programs; to examine public awareness about millennium development goal 3 and extent of their involvement in the advancement of its principles and;to explain the obtaining gaps, challenges and disharmony in the implementation of the millennium development goal 3 in Kenya. The study is guided by the feminism theory, which aims not only to understand the nature of the inequality but also seeks to promote women rights. The study exposes a number of initiatives by the Kenya government to enhance gender equality.The study confirms the hypotheses that the external origin of MGD 3 and the general lack of commitment among state and non state actors have affected the programmes implementation process in Kenya.