Although it is expected that Long-Acting and Permanent Methods of Contraception should be more acceptable owing to greater benefits, they have engendered considerable controversy. Political, ethical, and safety questions have emerged, stemming from the ways in which these contraceptives have been developed and used over the course of this century. At the heart of the concern is the issue of reproductive rights and freedom. While many researchers have assessed demographic and socio-cultural factors influencing contraceptive use in Africa, few attempts have been made to assess the same in Kenya. This book examines socio-economic and communication-based socio-cultural factors that can encourage or inhibit the up-take of LAPMs including problems associated with their use such as the prospects of new methods that are likely to emerge from ongoing research and development. It also examines the use and/or abuse of LAMPs and describes new reproductive health shifts. Thus this book will be especially useful to Medical and community health workers, community media workers and policy makers.
Family planning is a decision made by an individual or couples about how many children one would like to have ,when to start having children, when to stop having children and how long to rest between each pregnancy(MOH,2007). A significant number of useful studies have been conducted which account for aggregate fertility trends or explain individual fertility behaviors with some degree of power. It can be firmly asserted that the weakness of fertility research to date is not one of the poor theoretical formulations but its failure to place fertility within its local socio cultural and economic context. This study is an attempt to examine the possible socio-cultural and economic factors affecting women’s role in family planning decision making with specific reference to Addis Ketema Sub-City, Addis Ababa. The findings indicate that socio-cultural and economic factors interact on fertility and women’s fertility behaviors is greatly influenced by the socio-cultural values attached to child bearing.
This study investigated the socio-economic and cultural factors that affect the food security of children under five years in Boro Usigu Divisions of Siaya District in Western Kenya. Food insecurity is a common problem in the area and children under five are the most vulnerable group that are affected by the problem. Children always need adequate nutritious food for body maintenance and growth.
India with around 125 million populations in 2012 is the second most populated country in the world, only after China. Even though efforts have been made since long, right from 1951, immediately after independence, to restrict its high population growth, the country’s population continued growing with very high pace. India was also among the first countries to adopt family planning as its official policy, the much needed curtailment in its growth eluded the population planners of the country. Many factors have been responsible for continued high growth; those include socio-cultural and economic barriers on one side and policy, program implementation and access/affordability/choice of contraceptives barriers on the other. Other factors such as; low accessibility to health and reproductive services and continued high infant mortality instigated couples for higher family size. The present work tries to bring out the main factors which are responsible for continued high fertility and also as how much the key factors are responsible for the same. This would help policy planners to address some of the issues on priority.
In earlier times, no other group except the Karrayu inhabits the Fentale district which is located in the upper valley of the Awash River Basin. Nevertheless, in the last six to seven decades, other people have been migrating and settling in the traditional Karrayu territory. Major among these are the Ituu from Western Hararge. The Ituu are the only Karrayu neighbors with whom the latter had friendly relation. The relations between the two groups before the migration have been characterized by collaborative, smooth and very close one. The friendly relations on the one hand and the common ethnic background they shared on the other, as both of them are Oromo belonging to Barentuma, were followed by marriage ties between the members of the Ituu and Karrayu long before the beginning of the migration. These developments lay the ground for co-operation in times of difficulties and help each other if either of them were attacked by hostile neighbors.
The book is about knowledge, attitude and practices of married women about family planning methods. As the title indicates the book's main emphasis is on awareness about contraceptives and the sources of knowledge about contraception. The book includes the role of a series of socio and demographic factors like education, inter spouse communication on contraception, socio economic status, religion, family type etc affecting family planning practices. Unmet need of contraception in the society has been illustrated by the authors.Choice of contraception as temporary or permanent and the contraceptive methods popular in the society have also been explained. The book also address the issue of son preference in married females and determinants thereof. There has been a humble attempt to find out the reasons for son preference.The barriers to use of contraception in the society have also been described.
This book is published based on a well researched Master of Philosophy thesis that sort to find out the socio-economic and cultural factors that affect the small scale cocoa farmer in Ghana. The Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) has made a number of recommendations for cocoa farmers to adopt over the years. This book highlights farmers’ adoption levels of these CRIG recommended technologies and reasons for non-adoption by some farmers.
In Kenya and specifically Kisii District malaria is a major health and socio-economic problem. Statistically it accounts for over 40% of all morbidity and mortality cases. Ironically, in recent past there has been diminishing interest to malaria for other diseases which are seen to be “more threatening like HIV/AIDS.” This not withstanding this book analyses the influences of socio-cultural factors on malaria seeking behaviour in Kisii District, Kenya. The author uses quantitative data from 119 heads of households with self reporting cases of malaria, qualitative data from informal discussions and participant observation to argue that malaria is a behaviour as well as medical problem. In doing so, the author observes that overemphasis of biomedical approach which advocates for single universal malaria intervention programmes for all communities is not effective. Consequently, the books advocates for the incorporation of social, cultural and economic factors of malaria affected people in all intervention programmes.The book is a must read for scholars and students of medical sociology, and all those involved in diseases intervention programmes in Sub Saharan Africa.
In order to reduce fertility rates both in Nairobi and in Kenya at large, the educational levels of both males and females should be increased.This will help wipe out illiteracy which is found to be positively related to fertility. It will also increase the knowledge and awareness about contraception and it will also change attitudes on family size desires. It will also help create employment opportunities. Secondly, child mortality rates should be reduced by providing better health and nutritional services to both mothers and children.This will increase the survival rates of children thus increase the confidence in parents that the children they have will survive, thus desired family sizes will be achieved. Ethnic groups should also be given more formal education in order to change their attitudes on family size and their life-styles.
Population is the basic resource and, therefore, its impact on overall development becomes the key factor in local-level planning. The interplay of various socio-economic factors responsible for the population distribution and characteristics decides the population-resource dynamics in the micro-level studies. Population characteristics and socio-economic factors determine the level of development in the micro-level planning. Socio-economic development is a process of betterment for a larger human group and includes both, economic development and social transformation. Development is a multi-dimensional phenomenon which includes economic efficiency, education, health services, degree of modernization, status of women, quality of housing, distribution of goods and services as well as accessibility both in terms of transportation and communication. The focus of study is on various socio-economic aspects of development such as education, health, sanitation, women empowerment, agriculture, and industry. The main objective of the present study is to analyze the population change and socio-economic development.
Discussion related to sex and reproduction is somehow considered taboo subject for women living in traditional cultures. Reproductive Health is a neglected issue among majority of rural women. This book draws its data from ethnographic study conducted in village Burhan, District Attock, Pakistan. The principal objective of the study was to explore socio-cultural context in which process of reproduction takes place. Key research questions which this study tries to answer include how women complete different stages of reproductive cycle (Pregnancy, Delivery and Confinement), their right to decide the number and spacing of children, their consent for marriage and equality in Marriage, nature of spousal communication on fertility related issues, access and information related to appropriate family planning services and their right to safe abortion and post abortion care. The findings of this study suggest strengthening of socio-economic status of women in order to give them a sense of belonging, responsibility and role in contributing towards the development of the society as a whole.
This book investigates socio-economic and health economic issues related to the Kenyan people using the 2003 KDH Survey Data. The studies give empirical evidence that helps to understand the impact of socio-economic and health factors, including HIV/AIDS, on child schooling and health status. The book comprises five chapters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction and overview of the research work. Chapter 2 examines the factors contributing to an individual acquiring HIV, focusing on behavioural, personal and household characteristics and other socio-economic factors. Chapter 3 deals with children’s education outcomes: examining school attendance, attainment, and rates of grade progression, focusing on the impact of individual and household characteristics. It incorporates the effect of socio-cultural factors and HIV/AIDS on child schooling. Extensive work is done on relevant econometric and statistical tools designed to address the difficulties associated with the variables used in the analysis such as endogeneity, sample selection and missing data. The discussion and conclusion gives some guidance to education policy makers in Kenya and other parts of the world with similar conditions.
This research examines the factors of rural-urban migration and also the adjustment strategies to setup in urban societies. It is found that the underlying cause of migration is mainly driven by economic and social factors i.e., unemployment, poverty, political and ethnic conflicts, religious etc. In the migration process the push factors are more active then pull factors, as poverty and unemployment always push the poor villagers to change their residence to the cities. After migration majority of the migrants comparatively improved their livelihoods in the city. Although poor migrants have contributed significantly for the economic growth and gained from higher wages in higher productivity areas, they remain socially and economically excluded from the wider benefits of economic growth such as access to food and education, housing, sanitation and freedom. The study results highlight the need to target migrant groups and urban poor within urban areas in the provision of availability of work and social care services.
High fertility and rapid population growth have an impact on the overall socio-economic development of a country in general and maternal and child health in particular. Moreover, high population growth rate puts pressure on a nation’s scarce resources and poses a serious challenge to the provision of food, housing, health, educational services and employment opportunities to the public. Ethiopia is among the developing countries where the rate of population growth is one of the highest and contraceptive prevalence rate is one of the lowest. The practice of family planning and its possible determinants have hardly been explored in rural parts of the country. Targeting the identified factors, and making policy and development interventions can promote the level of utilization of family planning among rural women.
Factors explaining academic performance at primary school level have not been adequately addressed. The book examines the socio-economic factors influencing academic performance among primary school pupils.Factors considered are parental involvement, teacher''s involvement,number of siblings within a family, parental level of education, parental taking of alcohol, gender of the pupil, parental type of marriage and class repetition. All this factors influence academic performance at primary school level.The results of this study are expected to provide ideas for policy makers, parents, school administrators and staff, especially with respect to addressing the problems of low achievers and low performers. In particular, parents and children, in low status families who are interested in the improvement of academic achievement need to learn to deal with obstacles in the family and school environment that stand in the way of academic success of children.It is recommended that there is need for the government to strengthen family, parents, teachers and schools resources in general so as to improve academic performance of the pupils.
Family socio-economic status affects children’s education. It has been noted that the girl child is performing poorly in Kisumu East District when compared to the boy child in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations. For instance in 2008, in Nyanza Province only 5 girls compared to 25 boys were ranked among the top 100 nationally. Among the 5 girls there was only one girl from Kisumu East District. In 2009, only 6 girls compared to 26 boys were ranked among the top 100 position nationally from Nyanza Province; and there was no girl while there were 4 boys from Kisumu East District. Therefore the purpose of this study was to find out the influence of family socio-economic status on academic achievement of secondary school girls in Kisumu East District. The objectives of the study were to: examine the influence of parental level of Education; find out the influence of family income; establish the influence of family size and birth order and find out the influence of cultural factors on girl student academic achievement. The theory used was Pearson’s gender relations theory (Pearson, 1995). The research designs used were correlation and descriptive survey designs. The s
The causes of teachers dropout were broadly categorised into two groups, i.e. institutional factors and socio-economic factors. From the analysis it was found out that economic backwardness of the family was one of the most important causes contributing to the phenomena of dropout. Children are used as economic assets to the family at the age of nine and ten. As the family size is big in comparison to their income level, the parents are unable to provide their children with reading and writing materials, dresses and other educational expenses. Besides these factors social evils like illiteracy, ignorance of the parents about education are major factors for causing dropout at primary level. Hence, it becomes evident that children of the lower socio-economic condition are found to be more prone to drop-out than children of higher socio-economic status.
Although there are a large number of books available on various aspects of slums in India, but a book covering socio-economic and demographic characteristics of slums in Shillong city with statistical analysis has not yet been attempted. The book portrays a broad socio-economic profile of slum dwellers of Shillong along with analysis of health and living conditions. Consisting of six chapters, the book starts with the demographic profile of the state of Meghalaya where the growth of population, sex ratio, density of population, dependency ratio, literacy and urbanization have been discussed. The subsequent chapters deals with the living arrangement, socio-economic characteristics of slum households, delivery practices, fertility and family planning acceptance, utilization of maternal health services, awareness of HIV/AIDS and other important aspects of the slum residents. To assess the degree of association between the risk factors and response variables, odds ratio were computed by using binary and multinomial logistic regression models. The book will be of interest for social scientist, scholars of demography and policy makers who deal with urban planning.
Family welfare programme in India and Rajasthan and development from the beginning i.e. from 1952 onwards are explained. The district wise and year wise performance of various Family Planning Methods are presented. The trends and forecasting, the estimation of different contraceptive needs in the districts of Rajasthan is also obtained. Method of calculating the exact Couple Protection Rate (CPR) for the year 1991 and 2001 for the different Family Planning Methods is also presented. Factor analysis is applied on NFHS-II data, from which 21 variables are assessed and has some interdependent. By using NFHS-I and NFHS-II data, a comparison of the progress of different contraceptive methods with the different Socio-Economic and Cultural Characteristics is given. A statistical tool called CYP Index and CYP Prevalence Index is developed for evaluation of performance of acceptance of various Family Planning Methods. The different statistical model is developed for the different Family Planning Methods. These models are helpful to the health manager, social scientist and policy makers to identify the factors that require more interventions.
Although women cover more than half of the population, their involvement in economic activities is not fully assessed. Women are discriminated in all sectors and are not considered as major pillars of development activities. In Nepal, More than 70 percent females are involved in agriculture sector. Only very few women are engaged in high professional jobs. Girls are considered as “paraya dhan” (others property) and they don’t get the opportunity to get education. Many villagers send girls to school so that they would marry husbands of higher status. This book tries to examine socio-cultural and economic status of women, women’s participation in agricultural activities and responsive decision-making processes particularly in Chhaling VDC of Bhaktapur district of Nepal. This study reveals that the decision made by female is better in the family of Newars and Tamangs. The families of elite ethnic groups are found more conservative and dominated by males due to their culture.