Crude oil Tanker disasters and the regular refineries effluents are the major the source of oil pollution. An increasing trend of petroleum hydrocarbon in various oceans and seas has attracted attention of researchers to extensively investigate the effects of crude oil and its constituents on marine organisms. The study deals with toxicological studies of Water soluble fractions (WSFs) stock of Persian Gulf and Bombay High Crude oil on common marine clams of Mumbai coast. The study describes the responses of clams during long term wsf exposure combined with salinity and seasonal variations. A histopathological change in various tissues of clams is also investigated.
Oil exploration and development with the threat of pollution to living marine resources has increasingly become a public issue.The shift in balance of an ecosystem from a severely altered one, immediately following a major oil spill to a stable ecosystem can require many years. Certain organisms can be killed by water-soluble fractions (WSFs) of oil and exhibit sublethal response at much lower concentrations (1 to 10 ppb). The carcinogenic properties and anthropogenic origins of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the crude oil have led to interest in understanding their distribution and fate in the environment. The aim of researcher is to study and evaluate the toxic effects of water soluble fractions (WSFs) of Persian Gulf and Bombay High Crude oil on common marine clams of Mumbai coast such as Gafrarium divaricatum and Dosinia fibula, so as to serve as a baseline for monitoring the consequences of petroleum toxicity. Clams are widely distributed and are of great value as food for man. Because of increased demand and decreased production due to water pollution and other causes, their market price has increased greatly during past few years.
Indian coasts have witnessed a number of tanker disasters in recent years and regular spillage near the refineries and Mahul creeks. Refinery effluents are the major the source of oil pollution. An increasing trend of petroleum hydrocarbon in various oceans and seas has attracted attention of researchers to extensively investigate the effects of crude oil and its constituents on marine organisms. The study deals with toxicological studies gauging short term and long term sub lethal chronic toxicity of dilutions of 10 percent Water soluble fractions (WSFs) stock of Persian Gulf and Bombay High Crude oil on common marine clams of Mumbai coast such as Gafrarium divaricatum and Dosinia fibula. The study describes the physiological responses of clams burrowing activity during long term exposure to Wsf enriched sediment and changing profile of biochemical parameters. Further investigation is to assess how such exposure may affect the energetic or growth i.e. scope for growth (SFG) as well as the utilization of body reserves (i.e. Oxygen to Nitrogen rate O:N ratio) in these species.
In the past decade, there has been increasing concern that hazardous substances in the environment adversely affect male reproductive health. Male fertility has declined with marked increase in the population of sub-fertile. Although the chemical composition of the crude oil varies by source, crude oil and petroleum products share certain toxic characteristics and are toxic to biological life.In our environment, these chemicals are capable of mimicking the inherent actions of reproductive hormones and hence, have the ability to disrupt the neuroendocrine system or the function of the gonads directly. This study investigated the impact of Bonny Light Crude Oil (BLCO) on the male reproductive system. Results showed reduction in final body weight, decreased sperm count, motility and morphology of animals and the results were significant at P
A lot have been said about crude oil pollution in Nigeria and its effect to the economy and environment. This piece however, takes a critical look at the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy metals found in the samples of vegetables harvested from these areas where pollution has occurred as against the permissible limits available from literature as to identify their potential effect (developmental, reproductive, neurological) and health hazard. It will thus be an invaluable piece to Health workers, Biochemists, Nutritionist, and all other researchers in the field of sciences and Environmental Studies.
Soil contamination by hydrocarbon pollutants is becoming prevalent across the globe; this is undoubtedly due to high dependence on petroleum as a major source of energy. Several clean up technologies are currently available to treat soil contaminated with hazardous materials, these include excavation and containment in secured landfills, vapor extraction, stabilization and solidification, soil flushing, and solvent extraction. Many of these technologies, however, are either too costly or do not result in complete degradation of the pollutants. The drawbacks of these conventional clean up technologies has spurred investigation into biological treatment i.e. Bioremediation which appears to be among the most promising methods for dealing with a wide range of organic contaminants, particularly petroleum hydrocarbons. This book reveals the result of the investigation of the kinetics of bioremediation of soil contaminated with crude oil using natural stimulants by employing the land farming bioremediation technology. Effects of natural stimulants (i.e. moringa Oleifera cake, soya bean cake and cassava peel powder) on crude oil contaminated soil were carried in a microcosm study.
Several ionic liquids (ILs) were screened with Saudi medium crude oil based on different factors. The ionic liquid concentration, brine salinity, brine composition and reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature were investigated on the chosen ionic liquid- crude oil interracial tension (IFT). Ionic liquid ability to crack asphaltene chains in crude oil and dynamic adsorption for ionic liquid were also tested. Finally, different flooding scenarios were conducted on Berea sandstone rocks at reservoir conditions to investigate the effectiveness of the chosen ionic liquid in improving oil recovery
This study examined long-term relationships between oil prices from OPEC reference basket and stock prices of 12 oil and gas companies listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange as well as with their respective trade volumes. Since oil is the major input for oil companies so they are bound to be susceptible to fluctuations in the value of international crude. This study was conducted to estimate cointegration between oil price volatility and stock prices as well as oil price and trading volume of oil companies trading on KSE and to identify the long run behavior and to adjust the short term disequilibrium with other periods of the long run.
Biodegradation of heavy crude oil from wastewater was assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a new strain of Enterobacter cloacae (ERCPPI-1). The obtained results showed that ERCPPI-1 has potential for biodegradation of heavy crude oil under extreme environmental conditions. These results also suggest that strain ERCPPI-1 has the ability to degrade crude oil under ex situ and in situ conditions. Besides, a new mathematical model for predicting the extent of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation and diffusion-controlled bioavailability of crude oil was developed. The growth of microorganisms, production of biosurfactants, variation of oil droplet sizes and the influence of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH and crude oil concentration were incorporated into the model. At the same time, the effects of mass transfer rate of substrate, aeration and substrate and products inhibition on the percent of biodegradation of heavy crude oil were considered in the proposed model. The results predicted by the proposed model have been compared with the experimental data and it showed a good agreement between the results.
The price of the crude oil influences the lives of each of us. But is it clear to each of us if the price is artificially influenced or has some fundamental reasons to change? Are the crude oil traders more influenced by OPEC decisions or they rather tend to keep more closer eye on the technical parameters of the crude oil price development? I am trying to investigate one aspect of this phenomena.
This work contributes to the improvement of livelihoods of communities in the oil rich region in Uganda. The host communities deserve to benefit positively from the oil and gas resource for the current and future generations. Oil has the potential to transform and determine Uganda's economy but at the same time create challenges for its people. Good governance and Equitable share of the treasures of oil and gas is key for successful development of this industry.
The study deals with the topic of speculation on the crude oil market. This topic has been frequently discussed in association with the price hikes in 2008, but since the oil price has recently repeatedly reached levels over USD 100, the topic is still very present. We analyze the connection between the increasing open interest on the New York Mercantile Exchange crude oil futures market, the supply and demand factors for the crude oil and the crude oil price. Based on an error correction model analysis of monthly observations between 1994 and 2011, we show how an increase in the open interest, which is currently already comprised by the non-commercial traders by one half, can lead to a persistent increase in the crude oil prices.
The focus of the book is on the lessons that can be learned by "reading" the crude oil price term structure correctly - i.e. in formation of trading strategies or making forecasts. The analysis goes back to the period when trading crude oil was becoming popular and traces the conditions that led to the inevitable need for creating oil futures and markets where they are traded. The main aim of the book is to go into the details of the crude oil price term structure in order to understand how it reflects the prevailing market conditions and how the various market participants use it in their strategic decision-making activities. This book could be helpful to students who are interested in crude oil and the economics behind crude oil and crude oil products; to post-graduate students and researchers who are interested in deepening their knowledge of term structure as used in the crude oil industry; to professionals who want to explore the practical implications of concepts such as “contango” and “backwardation” and the hints one can get by interpreting correctly the crude oil price term structure for building a successful trading strategy.
The minimal refining method offers the potential to produce canola oil with an increased nutritional profile that retains excellent sensory qualities. Canola oil contains the lowest amount of saturated fatty acids and high amount of phytosterols and tocopherols. Refining process is required to remove undesirable components such as free fatty acids, chlorophyll, gums, trace metals, oxidized products from the crude oils. Traditional refining consists of degumming, neutralization, bleaching and deodorization stages. Some part of sterols and tocopherols are, however, inevitably removed from the oil during various stages of refining such as washing with hot water, absorption by soap or clays, and stripping off by steam. More than 40 percent of sterols and tocopherols are lost during deodorization, which is conducted at high temperature and low vacuum pressure. Minimal refining method, replaces sodium hydroxide with a weaker alkali, to minimize degradation of tocopherols and sterols. Natural clays are used for bleaching instead of acidified clays and deodorization is omitted completely to preserve natural canola oil flavor and healthy components.
The book center on the potentials of bioremediation in cleaning polluted site, looking at the rate of oil pollution in Nigeria. This research aims at identifying the potentials of mushroom and cow dung in enhancing the biodegradation of crude oil polluted soil. Results indicated that biodegradation of crude oil in the soil treated with the mixture of mushroom, cow dung and sawdust was higher than the ones treated with cow dung or the control experiment, with the percent degradation as 79 % while that of cow dung was 28 %. Statistical analysis using ANOVA indicated a significant difference at P < 0.05. The results also showed that mixture of sclerotia, sawdust and cow dung) significantly decreased the total hydrocarbon content of the soil and improve the nutrient content, by lowering the Carbon: Nitrogen (C: N) ratio which is an index of improved soil fertility. Thus, mixture of sclerotia saw dust and cow dung are suggested for amendment of crude oil polluted sites.
Factors that might affect supply and demand for the Canadian dollar on the foreign exchange market and thus influence the exchange rate are: rates of interest, rate of inflation, balance of trade and investors’ confidence in a currency. This study focuses only on relationship between price of crude oil and price of the Canadian dollar against the US dollar and controls for other factors. The daily data is collected from the Natural Resources Canada. Sample period ranges from January 2000 to July 2009. Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) and Exponential GARCH (EGARCH) models are used. The study finds a positive and robust relation between the observed variables. More precisely, a 10% change in oil price leads to about 0.32% increase in the Canadian-US exchange rate.
The influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the formation and stability of corrosion inhibitor layer formed on mild steel surface during pipeline transportation process was investigated. The investigation involved the effect on corrosion rate of exposure time and Reynolds number. The investigation showed that in both solutions, the corrosion rate increased with Reynolds number and decreased with exposure time. The results also revealed that the formation and the development of the inhibitor layer in corrosive media are dependent on the respective flow velocities and exposure time.
Methods of Estimating Reserves of Crude Oil, Natur al Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids
This study examines the effects of the oil export price increase in both theoretical and empirical contexts considering the Kazakhstani economy as a case study, and discusses the effects of different macro closure rules. The study has been motivated by several factors. First, the theoretical literature on this subject is limited as it relies on the Salter-Swan framework that does not incorporate two- way trade or it assumes the oil sector an enclave. Second, the empirical literature on the effects of the oil export price increase on Kazakhstan using an economy-wide framework is limited. Third, there is hardly anything in the literature that tests the effects of different macro closure rules in theoretical multi-sector models, although different macro closure rules might trigger different results. As a result, most of the CGE modelers conventionally do not explain the rationale behind their choice of macro closure rules, although the results might be different under different macro closure rules. The study develops several stylized models to test the effects of alternative macro closure rules and applies Lofgren et al''s (2002) model to the Kazakhstani economy.
This study aims at investigating the following: first, whether the U.S exchange rate has a negative effect on the price of crude oil or not; second, whether there is a unidirectional relationship or not that runs from the U.S dollar exchange rate to the price of crude oil by conducting a Granger causality test; third, verify whether there is a long- run relationship between our proposed variables by conducting a co-integrated test by using the Engle-Granger test. This study finds a significant negative bivariate relation between the price of crude oil and the U.S dollar exchange rate when using monthly data. Furthermore, when using the same annual values of the two variables, this study shows that change of U.S dollar exchange rate does Granger cause the change in the price of crude oil at 5% level of significance, however, the oil price does not Granger cause change in U.S exchange rate at 5% level of significance. Therefore, the existence of a one way (unidirectional) effect is realized at 5% level of significance, which runs from the U.S dollar exchange rate to the price of crude oil.