The present study was undertaken to gather baseline information on the ecology and behavior of Indian peafowl in an agro-ecosystem. The data were collected on the following aspects: habitat utilization pattern, vocalization and courtship behavior and food and feeding habits.The study was conducted in the outskirts of Aligarh town (27° 30' N, 79° 40'E).Four distinct types of habitat could be distinguished on the basis of differences in the vegetation.The habitats were preferred in the following order: scrub>open barren land> crop fields>plantation.Among the roosting trees, Albizzia lebbeck and Dalbergia sissoo were the preferred tree species. Vocalization pattern showed seasonal variation and the variation seems to be related to breeding activity. They preffered to eat the following wild herbs :Dichanthium annulatum, Pluchea lanceolata, Achyranthes aspera and Panicum antidotale. The limiting factor for the population under study was probably the availability of nesting cover.
Fresh water turtles are present in almost all the major riverine systems, lakes and ponds. The turtle population is declining due to over exploitation and habitat destruction. Turtles are also killed for meat and their eggs are consumed as food. Moreover, pollution and other disturbances caused by man and his domestic animals also are responsible for their decline. There are only a few reports on the reproductive biology of turtles. There is little information on the nesting behavior or habitat. The biology of reproduction of the freshwater / pond turtle, Lissemys punctata in relation to its ecology has given us the insight in devising strategies for their conservation.
The book is the compilation of research papers and review articles contributed by the eminent scientists and research workers. This book contains ten chapters: Introduction, Biology of A. flavus Group Fungi, Biosynthesis of Aflatoxin, Detection of Aflatoxin, Health Risks, Toxic Effects (Aflatoxicosis), Ecology of Aflatoxin Contamination, Control of Aflatoxin, Safety Measures, and Conclusion. This review and bibliography of the Biology and Ecology of A. flavus Group Fungi on Food Grains should be of particular value to scientists in the developing world who may not have ready access to the special journals and reports in which much of the research on aflatoxins has been documented. The authors’ original research papers are summarized in appropriate chapters but some editing has been done with the articles of other researchers to provide consistency and clear elucidation for the readers. In a publication of this nature omissions are inevitable and the authors would appreciate having these brought to their notice. The authors hope that the volume may serve as one of the best references to postgraduate students, teachers and researchers dealing with agricultural microbiology.
Pen shells is a common bivalve living associatedly with seagrass in marine and brackish water. This species regularly sought after by the local people in Malaysia as the daily protein source. Over the past 15 years, intensifies exploitation of pen shells natural stocks has led to a decline in production and now it gazetted as an endanger species in Malaysia. This book provides information regarding biology, ecology and distribution of Malaysia pen shells. It is aimed as technical reference and baseline study for students, researchers, professionals and managers of the fisheries resource management.
The book has been divided in to four chapters each dealing with different aspects of wild life black buck sanctuary of Tal Chhapar situated in desert area of Rajasthan, India. The study of Tal Chhapar wild life sanctuary deals the ecological conditions of the sanctuary. In the Tal Chhapar sanctuary there are mainly black buck and little percentage of other birds. The author has tried to find out the present ecological conditions and ecological degradation. The author also suggested a management plan in this book.
Having pan-tropical distribution, the barbets are prominent group of birds belonging to family Capitonidea. Paucity of any detail information on ecology and biology of Asiatic barbets prompted the author to undertake an intensive study on life history of Indian barbets. It seemed also desirable to get an explanation how congeneric sympatric barbets coexisted successfully. Feeding impact of barbets on Coffee Plantations has also been discussed. Besides controlling termites and other harmful insects including coffee stem borer and teak defoliator, the barbets help in seed dispersal and cross-pollination of plants. Although still common at many places in the country, due to shrinkage of forests and avenue gardens, and poaching in certain areas, the population of barbets is declining. Therefore, barbets deserve due consideration in biodiversity conservation planning of the country for their sustainability.
Chrysocoris stolli wolf a polyphagus pests bugs different plants .E.G cassia occidental-is a main food plant of this pests. Pentatomidae bugs are generally injurious to crops of human consumption and causes considerable loss by their desapping habit. Chrysocoris stolli in fests cereal food plant of economics value as mentioned authors 2006 and 2008.
Species of the genus Utricularia L. are carnivorous plants, which capture and digest insects and other tiny animalcules have been subject of scientific curiosity for quite a long time; which are thought to be able to supplement nutrients from animals. Only a small number of Utricularia are genuine aquatic. Earlier water bodies which were rich in Utricularia sp. are now almost devoid of this plant probably due to the changes in water qualities and other environmental stresses caused by anthropogenic activities. The impact of water pollution on the ecology and biology of Utricularia have been studied and the impacts of different physico-chemical conditions of water on Utricularia were observed. This investigation reveals that the species of Utricularia fail to perform their normal biological processes and prey capturing ability in polluted water, and showed some threshold limits of inactivation under certain physico-chemical changes of the habitat water. Death and decomposition of the study plants ensure at certain values of such physico-chemical conditions.
Semiplotus semiplotus is well recognised as the valued food fish of Eastern Himalayas and is endemic to the region. In the olden days the fisherman in the plains of Assam were to present this fish to their king whenever caught, and for the reason this is popular as Kingfish. The growing demand of this fish creates a load on the species resulting alarming status on its distribution as well as population. The habitat of this fish are with well vegetation, adequate covers and refuges, substrate dominated by boulders, water temperature within the range of 14.27 to 25.78 °C with adequate dissolve oxygen. The fish is herbivorous in nature with highly coiled alimentary canal having average length of 1438.8 mm. Gills and gill rakers are suitably modified for plankton feeding. Sexes can be identified from morphological observation. Gonads are well developed and distinct in both the sexes. Gonadosomatic indices are maximum in the month of August with 11.01 %. Fecundity per 100 g body weight ranges from 3425 to 6958. The length-weight relationship does not follow Cube law. The length at first maturity is within 151 to 160 and 146.22 and 154.51 mm in male and female respectively.
The growth of cucurbit crops are severely affected by a number of insect pests among which, the red pumpkin beetle Aulacophora (Raphidopalpa) foveicollis (Lucas) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are the most damaging and major pests. The beetle causes heavy damage during early phase of plant growth in India and abroad. Curative control measures are practiced to protect them. The proper control of pests minimizes economic losses and damage to the environment. The infestation by the pest on all the major cucurbitaceous crops is also noticed from Cachar district- one of the major district of Barak Valley which is situated in the southern part of Assam, North-East India. The management practices are not enough due to lack of scientific knowledge of its ecology and biology. There is a need for studying and documenting the proper knowledge of insect pest incidence in different agro-climatic environments. The main aim of the book is to help the researchers, policy makers, scientists, academicians to give a brief idea about the Ecology and Biology of this pest in the southern part of Assam in NE India.
Coastal Ecosystems are the world's rich storehouse of biological diversity. Mangroves considered as Green Sentinels of the Coasts are among the world’s most productive ecosystems. Indian Sundarbans is located at the apex of Bay of Bengal is noted for its rich floral and faunal diversity and the only mangrove tiger-land in the world and consists of largest mangrove concentration. The approach used in this book is that an investigation of seasonal sampling of ecological settings for the central sector of Indian Sundarbans including water quality, mangrove species with its capacity and accumulation of trace metals in water and oysters species. This study marked significant spatial variation in metal level amongst the species, water quality and ecological condition which may be due to variations in environmental conditions. The result pointed out that highly urbanization, industrialization & unplanned tourism, a negative impact has been exerted on the positive health of the aquatic system in and around the Indian Sundarbans that becoming threat for the existence of floral and faunal biodiversity.
Spices are one of the easiest ways to add functional foods to our diet. Every spice has its own set of culinary uses, medicinal and health benefits. Spices, which have long been the basis of traditional medicine in many countries, have also been the subject of study, particularly by the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries, because of their potential use for improving health. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated how these substances act as antioxidants, digestive stimulants, and hypolipidemics and show antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic activities. These beneficial physiological effects may also have possible preventative applications in a variety of pathologies. Thus having so many secret folds of health benefits, they are complete functional foods. This monograph will be thoroughly focused on the biology, qualitative phytochemical studies, total phenoolics and antioxdidant potential of the four Indian spices: Kokum (Garcinia indica Choisy), Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), Star Anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.) and Bay Leaf (Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees & C.H.Eberm.
On the basis of study of 30 species epilithic and epiphytic ferns, and taking into account literature data, adaptive strategies and adaptive syndromes of their sporophytes are identified; morphofunctional types (MFT) of vascular epiphytes reflecting peculiarities of adaptation of their life forms to the environmental conditions of specific biomes were distinguished; evolutionary restrictions and compensatory adaptations in ferns gametophytes and sporophytes and possible ways of rhythmological evolution of ferns are outlined (on the basis of comparison of basal evergreen phenorhythmotype with derived rhythms occurring in temperate ferns). A complex analysis of photosynthetic apparatus of the plants at various levels of its organization was carried out: a) fronds, b) mesophyll cells, c) plastid apparatus. Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent). Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, number of cells per a unit of frond area.
SUMMARY TO COVER PAGE Taxonomic studies using morphology, anatomy, and shell characteristics have revealed clearly that the taxonomic position of Pinctada fucata Gould is in the family Pteriidae. The distribution is mainly in the coralline patches of the coasts and the two Oceanic Islands of India. Gross productivity was correlated with the season and salinity. Seasonal and depth wise pattern and shade also had an effect on the settlement of barnacles and mortality of pearl oysters .The treatment mixed algae with raw rice flour given maturing oysters 62 percentage in lab conditions on day 29 itself . Matured stage III 43 percentage pearl oysters fed with mixed algae and without feeding changed to stage V. The larval life cycle was 20 to 25 days in Phase I. In the Phase II 23 to 60 day old spat, Phase III 60 to 2 years, and the growth rates were observed as 120 µm and 64 µm per day. The graft tissue deposited nacreous coating on the nucleus within 18 days on a 4 mm wax nucleus .The nacreous pearl sac formed on the shell bead nucleus which had produced good and lustrous pearls. The inner epithelial cells with mucous cells produced abnormal sac and D quality pearl .
Ecology is the science that studies relationships between living organisms and the environment they live in. Various habitats are studied and investigated to understand the composition and such interrelationship amongst these components. Such studies help us to understand as how to maintain high quality of water and environmentally viable water resources. The present work is an effort to contribute towards limnological and biological aspects of pond ecology. The text includes various facets and dimensions of physico-chemical factors, planktons, micro-invertebrates and other related areas. The text is supported by field data, their statistical analysis, graphs and exhaustive bibliography.
Sea catfishes belong to the family Tachysuridae (Ariidae) and Plotosidae. Total 8 genera and 77 species are recorded in the family Ariidae of which 60 species of Arius spp. from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Four genera viz Arius/Tachysurus (Many species), Batrachocephalus (single sps.), Ancharius (two sps.) and Osteogenciousus (Single sps.) are known to occur in the western Indian Ocean.They inhabit marine and estuarine habitat and characterized by the presence of barbells, lack of true scales and strong spine in front of the caudal fin.Some aspects of biology and behaviour such as low fecundity, shoaling behaviour, shallow nursery grounds, migration and parental care of many sea catfishes make them to easy target for exploitation. Another behavioral pattern that tends them to easy exploitation is parental care. Sea catfishes are mainly caught in trawls, drift gill nets and purse seines. Sea catfishes are known for low fecundity and development of patriarchal parental care. Thus the information provided in this undertaking will be useful to a wide spectrum of end-users including fisherman, fishing industry, Scientist researchers, administrators and policy makers.
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My research interests lie in the taxonomy, biology, ecology and biodiversity of insects of agricultural and medical importance and in their biological control through the use of Insect natural enemies. I have been working on the taxonomy of Braconid parasitoids using modern techniques in taxonomy such as genitalic and karyological studies.I have conducted independent research work, published the outcome in journals of international repute namely Oriental Insects, Zootaxa, El-xavier and Insecta Mundi etc. My research papers have been indexed in Zoological and Entomology abstracts. I am also supervising research project as principal investigator sponsored by government organization namely DST.
The book is about Indian flying fox (P.giganteus). It is one of the biggest fruit bat in Indian subcontinent, lives as a group. It roost on tree canopies, forages night and feed on fruits, flower petals, nectar and pollen. It plays crucial role in pollination and seed dispersal mechanism of many forest trees. This is the study about mutual relationship between fruit bat Pteropus and it depending plants.The main chapters contains foraging behavior, roosting ecology and seed dispersal mechanism of Pteropus. The book mainly designed for those who interested in biology ecology and forestry etc. The images including in this book all are original taken from the study sites.