A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition & Action
A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition & Action (Paper)
Market failure create uncertainties and asset specificities to many entrepreneurs while at the same time providing preferential bargaining opportunities to the few, thus, posing huge transaction costs to the disadvantaged, the poor, and vulnerable sections of the society. In developing economies, where there exist poor entrepreneurs, alliances are not in formal patterns and most often not well developed, mainly, in small businesses to overcome an increasing transaction costs. Instead in such businesses, entrepreneurs develop evolutionary informal networks with external actors in keeping their business landscape sustainable. These networks comprising: social, industrial, and support, has not been well studied. This work examined small enterprises networking in Addis Ababa: the capital of Ethiopia. The findings, overall, revealed that entrepreneurs build strong informal networks and these networks have significant influences on small business growth, especially through developing contacts with other entrepreneurs implying the need to promote the sector through valuing and scaling-up of inter-firm networks as important tools for business success.
At present, one of the latest computing technologies that seem to change the view of the modern world is mobile Internet. Now wireless applications are more popular among the users and the organizations. This book aimed to investigate on various technologies that are used to provide Internet facilities on a mobile phone, and to develop a dynamic WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) application for a library system. The book discusses the major technologies which are important to understand mobile Internet environment, such as mobile computing, wireless communication channels, wireless network protocols and different technologies that can be used to develop a WAP application such as WML (Wireless Markup Language), Java Servlet, DBMS (Database Management System), Apache Tomcat server etc. The application was implemented on mobile phone emulator from which user can reserve a book, renew a book and send a request to librarian’s email address. The book also describes the stages of SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) for the application. This book will provide theoretical and practical help to the students and software developers who are interested in developing WAP applications.
Residential building, and built infrastructure in general, determine primary demand of major materials and at the end-of-life they determine also the secondary materials supply. As the life time of buildings is long, the dynamics in their demand and replacement are key factors in long term demand and supply of the materials concerned. A study of the dynamics in residential building in China shows unexpected results. The boom in steel demand and the shortage in scrap for steel production of the last decade will not last long. Under reasonable assumptions regarding economic growth and life time of buildings, there will be a sharp decrease in steel demand for new construction in the next decades and a steady increase in scrap from demolition. The share of Chinese residential building in global steel demand has been substantial, up to 7% in 2008. This part in global demand will go down substantially, within a decade. For other construction, similar dynamics will hold, also inducing swings in global steel demand. The method developed in this PhD thesis can be applied broader, also to other materials. It is most useful for products and installation with a longer life time.
Revision with unchanged content. Oil exporting developing countries have the common problem of how best to transform their valuable but nonrenewable oil reserves into a permanent flow of income for achieving their long term development objectives. The most fundamental dynamic choices of these economies can be summarized in three basic questions: i) how much to extract, ii) how much to invest, and iii) where to invest. In other words, a sustainable development path in the case of these economies involves the optimal depletion of their exhaustible resource, allocation of revenues generated by the resource, and the optimal composition of their investment funds. This study presents a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to explore issues related to economic development in these resource dependent economies by focusing on the case of Iran. The proposed model consists of a price endogenous CGE model, simulating workings of a market economy, embedded in an inter-temporal optimal growth and development model. The model is benchmarked for the Iranian data and is used to examine the issues related to optimal extraction of an exhaustible resource, optimal savings in the economy, and the allocation of investment funds. The book is addressed to those interested in the economic development of oil economies, energy planning, and sustainable development.
The purpose of this study is to discover the role of social knowledge management enabler such as managerial support and empowerment in product development. This research study explores the concept of dynamic capabilities and how it is basically formed by the combination of knowledge generation, knowledge integration, and knowledge configuration. Present research study also focuses on the product organizations. The importance of knowledge management is very well understood by the companies in Pakistan, they know that the knowledge management process, if effectively processed in an organization, helps in the development of products. This study confirms that dynamic capabilities generate product competences, which respectively distinguish a firm’s product development efforts from competitors. This study enhances the companies’ progress and other activities regarding organizational strategies and organizational learning as well as product development activities.
This is highly successful text includes excellent coverage of statics with an emphasis on dynamic and practical applications.Thoroughly revised and uploaded ,also includes optimal coverages of electromagnetic interference and compatibility for beginning or subsequent courses. NEW FEATURES: 1)31 solved single layer electromagnetic shielding performance layers at different frequency ranges. 2)13 solved multilayered electromagnetic shielding performance layers at different frequency ranges for different conducting materials.
In spite of the energy crisis, population and environment degradation issues, the use of automobiles has been going up. This call for continuing the efforts towards developing more efficient, environmentally friendly, safer and more controllable vehicles. This often translates into developing better models and increasing the use of onboard computers. The use of computers for control invariably requires models which execute faster and are reliable even in extreme conditions. Bond graph based techniques allow the development of continuously extensible models and easier integration with control systems.The present work deals with the development of the so called half car models using Bond graph based approaches to study the response of the vehicle while passing over a ramp or uneven surface.A successful compilation of the Bond graph on the Bond graph package Symbol Shakti shows that the model has been created with logical correctness.More extensive validation may be needed before it can be taken up for testing its utility for online control.
During the last decade, Mg alloys have attracted much attention for their application in various fields as a light-weight structural material. The widespread application of Mg alloys is due to the fact that Mg is the eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust and the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a relatively low cost, low density, good machinability, high specific strength and easy recycling capability. All these properties make Mg alloys excellent candidates as a structural material. The specific gravity of the magnesium is 1.74 that is about 2/5 of the titanium or about 2/3 of aluminium. The magnesium is the most lightweight in metal structure materials, and the strength is at the same level as aluminium. Lightweight structure is very useful in aviation, aerospace, automotive, transportation and other fields. Magnesium alloy has an obvious advantage in these fields because of its low density and high specific strength. Magnesium-alloy components are generally produced by casting processes. Mg–Al based alloys, such as AZ and AM series magnesium alloys, are the most commonly used commercial materials in automotive fields.
The global economy is not able to face the crisis' impact. This is why the economists try to find new solutions and approaches, in order to support the economic recovery and to continue the economic sustainable development. Maybe the best solution is the regional approach. There are a lot of definitions of the regions and more and more approaches of them. The present book realizes a synthesis of those approaches as a first step to a deeper analysis of the regional socioeconomic development. A distinct part of the book analyses the most important regional models used by the decision makers in order to support their political interventions. Moreover, the author propose new static and dynamic regional models able to offer new possibilities of analysis to the decision makers. Last but not the least, the book realizes dynamic comparative analyses between EU28 Member States. The analysis and the conclusions of every chapter are supported by the latest official statistic data, pertinent diagrams and tables.
This book uses a dynamic general equilibrium model to examine the economy-wide impact of forest plantation development in Laos. Analysis focussed on the Government of Laos’ forest policies to promote the development of forest plantation by the year 2020. To assess interactions between the macro-economy and micro-economic effects, a macro-micro economic framework was developed by connecting the dynamic Lao CGE model to a microsimulation model (LaoDCGE-MSM model). This technique enables us to assess the plantation impact at the household level or to examine the impact on poverty and inequality. The LaoDCGE-MSM model can potentially play an important role in analysing economic impacts for public decision-making. At the national level, it can assist the Government of Laos in examining possible impacts of forest plantation development on the Lao economy, poverty, and inequality. The model can also be used as a framework to answer a number of other questions relating to Lao trade, taxation, and environmental issues. For example, it could be used to investigate the impact of economic policies or external shocks such as those resulting from Laos joining the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA),
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Making the ‘state - society synergy’ a reality by bridging the ‘great divide’ between the state and the society is vital for achieving prosperity. Of the several attempts in Sri Lanka to bridge this divide, ‘Samurdhi’, the current main social safety net in Sri Lanka, can be considered the most significant attempt. This book places its emphasis on researching the factors that influence the Samurdhi program’s potential for creating a constructive engagement between the state and the civil society, thus empowering the civil society and contributing to achieving economic development. The study shows that state - society interaction has created a number of mutual benefits for both the state and society. Yet, some of the positive impacts of this synergy have been diminished by the absence of a proper policy direction. The political involvement in the program has created a ‘distorted form of state - society interaction’, thus negating some of the benefits of the synergy between the two actors. The book also suggests that current theories on the ‘state - society synergy’ should pay more attention to causes of social fragmentations such as ethnicity and caste in the South Asian societies.
A dynamic program slice is that part of a program that affects the computation of a variable of interest during program execution on a specific program input. Dynamic program slicing was originally proposed only for program debugging. It is usually accepted that understanding and debugging of multithreaded and distributed programs are much harder compared to those of sequential programs. Different types of dynamic program slices, together with algorithms to compute them have been proposed in the literature. Most of the existing algorithms for finding slices of distributed programs use trace files and are not efficient in terms of time and space complexity. Some existing algorithms also use a complex intermediate representation graph by adding a no of different types of dependency edges and by traversing the dependency graph. Therefore, there is a need for development of efficient algorithms for distributed programs and to reduce the complex structure of the dependency graph. This work uses basic concepts of the inter-procedural dynamic slicing algorithm and remodels it to extract slices of distributed programs with introduction of some additional data structures.
This book demonstrates that American agricultural development was far more dynamic than generally portrayed. In the two centuries before World War II, a stream of biological innovations revolutionized the crop and livestock sectors, increasing both land and labor productivity.
Concrete floors always designed against the action of static loads, despite everyday evidence that dynamic loads are also of great importance and therefore there is a growing need for measurement of dynamic parameters like natural frequency and damping ratio of the floor. Structural engineers are nowadays facing a significant challenge related to the development of economical composite concrete floor structures. Composite concrete floor, this new design trend is a considerable increase in the problems related to unwanted floor vibrations. Composite concrete floors have been found to resolve vibration susceptibility. Instrumented hammer test and Instrumented electro-dynamic shaker test of the composite concrete and concrete constructions under forced harmonic vibrations are conducted in this study so as to observe the dynamic responsive characteristics.
This research describes the fabrication and investigation of new engineered wood products called Composite Insulated Beams (CIB). The CIBs were tested to determine their structural performance, long term durability, thermal and dynamic behaviours. CIBs combine the efficiency of sandwich panels with existing engineered wood products to produce new, competitive and cost effective EWP with improved structural value and durability.
The container liner shipping market has become more volatile and concentrated because of the uncertainties in the world economic development and carriers’ pursuit of scale economies and larger market shares. Although these issues have attracted considerable attention in the container liner shipping industry, few studies focus on market fluctuations and the decision factors for liner companies’ capacity expansion. This book consists of a dynamic market analysis, and an examination of carrier capacity expansion and ship investment behavior in the container liner shipping market. The dynamic market analysis models the fluctuation of the container freight rate and fleet capacity using simultaneous equations and which could help to forecast the dynamic movement of the market. The capacity expansion behavior of individual carriers is examined using panel data methods to help identify all the possible factors influencing liners’ capacity expansion decision and market concentration. The ship investment decisions are analyzed using Logit models which investigates the liners’ decision process and factors influencing their specific choice of ships.
This is an original study on the effect of a polyisobutylene – polydimethylsiloxane (PIB-PDMS) block copolymer modifier used as an interfacial active agent on the dynamic behaviour of single Newtonian drops suspended in a polyisobutylene (PIB) Newtonian matrix. The results are divided in two sections. The first part includes experiments carried out on the non-modified and 2% block copolymer modified polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) drops of five different MWs suspended in PIB920 matrix. In the second part, the effect of various concentrations of the block copolymer (0.5, 2 and 10 wt%, drop based) is studied on the drop dynamics.