This study was a sociolinguistic survey of the current language policies, language use and language attitudes in the EAC partner states. A critical examination of the current language policies, a description of language choice and use in various situations and contexts and the attendant language attitudes were done. The empirical information gathered on these variables was to be used as a basis for the formulation of a language policy that promotes EAC integration and the linguistic diversity attendant in the region. The major findings of the study were: The current language policy and language planning has further expressly shaped language policy at the EAC level; The rich tapestry of languages in the EAC region is vibrant and in daily use by people of all generations in various contexts, situations and in the media. In most contexts, a combination of languages is preferred. The use of all these languages ensures that effective and meaningful communication is achieved; Instrumental reasons form the strongest need for European languages while various combinations of languages provide the greatest integrative value.
Multilingualism and cultural diversity is anchored in Europe?s history. Knowledge of foreign languages is a key competence tackling the challenges of the European Union towards enlargement, civic changes and globalisation. Present analysis describes the set-up of a framework in Education and Training on an EU level and the development of a Language Policy shifting from an initially economic frame to a more cultural and civic approach back to a labour market oriented objective. The conceptualization of the action fields of the EU Language Policy is defined in the correspondence to social, civic and economic needs despite of varying understanding, tradition and visions of multi-lingualism in the Member States. The European Union promotes multilingualism through various funding programmes demonstrated in the second part of this study. Burgenland in Austria is a multilingual region at the cross-point between German, Hungarian, Romani and Slav languages. Using the example of this region, discrepancies have been revealed between the multilingual concept of the European Union and its implementation on a national and regional level due to the socio-economic realities of the Member States.
Governments have policies on which languages can be used by teachers in schools. What is the impact of these policies on diverse societies? The Ethiopian policy on educational language of instruction now permits many different languages to be used in primary schools. This study looks at the interplay between socio-political changes in a diverse society, language planning and group identity formation. It compares the ways in which the change in Ethiopian educational policy has impacted the social group identities of two ethnic groups: the Gumuz and the Shinasha from Benishangul Gumuz Regional State. “Our hidden language will be visible for the future”, says a Shinasha father. A Gumuz elder says that “to start with our mother tongue is good. We have hope that we will be equal with the others in future”. In the words of a Shinasha elder: “If we plant the tree, and we take care of it, it will never die. Language is like that.” Besides the detailed comparison between the two ethnic groups, the study also examines how the policy on educational language of instruction emerged out of the context of the Ethiopian political situation, its rationale, aims and implementation.