The primary objective of this book is to better understand the determinants of child labour and schooling in Bangladesh. Much of the international concern about child labour in Bangladesh has been on the use of child labour in the commercial sector, although most of the children in Bangladesh are employed either in the household sector or the agricultural sector, and mainly employed by their parents. Therefore, existing anti-child labour policies mainly focus on the lowering of the demand for child labour in Bangladesh. The focus of this book is, however, on the supply side of child labour, particularly on the use of child labour in the agricultural sector and the household sector where children are mainly employed by their parents. In terms of possible policy recommendations, the results from this book suggest that employment generation schemes that lead to economic prosperity for the household, compulsory schooling of children, school enrolment subsidy, and adult literacy campaigns that increase community or social awareness, especially of the adult female, would be appropriate for reducing child labour in Bangladesh.
This monograph is the result of a Research Project funded by University Grants Commission of India, focusing on the problem of Child Labour in India, an outcome of a complex socio-economic process. Apart from the children openly working, the study has explored, probably for the first time in a pan-Indian context, the issue of the ‘Reserve Army of Child Labour''. Naturally, the research examines schooling status of children also. Factors determining working or schooling status of children have been identified leading to several policy suggestions. Experiences from Field Surveys have been used to examine the efficacy of existing programs and schemes and to suggest modifications to make policies more effective. A valued resource for academicians and development practitioners.
This book delineates the nature and extent of the problem of child labour, and also examines the economic and demographic characteristics of child labour households. This book provides the information in the socio-economic perspective the various dimensions of the institution of child labour in India in general and in Aligarh city in particular. The book offers a wealth of information about child labour and a wide-ranging analysis of experiences in the formation and implementation of policies and programmes in a variety of industrial and socio-economic contexts. This invaluable resource will help not only governmental organizations but also non- governmental organizations contribute to eliminating child labour.
Child labour is more prevalent in underdeveloped countries. History of the child labour in factories during the 19th century gives us dreadful events of their poor conditions, about the serfs in labour market sent by landlords as well as growing richness of the milliner of mill owners. First and foremost reason is Poverty, and other reasons are the lack of protective child labour legislation and the evasion of existing laws for the protection of child labour, keep child labour going and getting exploited. Tirupati-Tirumala is a high profile temple city throughout the world. It occupied the first position in terms of visiting pilgrims in India. In Tirupati, hotel industry is very popular and a fast growing industry. This book is studied with the employment of child labour in the registered and unregistered hotel industry in Tirupati-Tirumala of Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. The main aim of this book is to study the socio-economic, demographic conditions, education levels, working conditions, wages and benefits, relationship with their employers and health conditions of child labour.
The human rights and child right concerns were accelerated from the west and universalized throughout the world by neglecting the context, culture, level of income, living conditions and social norms and values of the countries around the globe. In this context, the felt problem is how to implement the universal provision of human and child rights as an universal phenomenon, where children are treated as the most needy, controlled, and neglected member in the society. Besides, they have to play the role of duty holder instead of right holders in their childhood, schooling and social life. There are various types of mindsets i.e. traditional,labelling, right-oriented, equity driven and global mindsets among the adults and children. Such variations have resulted different types of child right- duty dichotomies i.e. education / labour; rights / duties; inclusion / exclusion; liberation /oppression; and equality / inequality. More specifically, the book also provides the knowledge on how children managed these dichotomies.This book is useful to educationists, researchers and academicians to analyze the east-west debate and also the implication of universal provision of child rights.
The labour movement started in Europe during the industrial revolution. Previously, the idea faced great resistance. However, the labour movement was active in the early to mid-nineteenth century and various labour parties and trade unions were formed throughout the industrialised world. The labour movement has a very long past in this region, though industrialisation took place very late in Bangladesh. The beginning of labour agitation in Indian sub-continent was in Bengal. In 1860, there was a strong protest against the inhuman working condition and hardship of cultivation workers. A further organised form of trade union activities in this region was started thereafter. Unfortunately, illiteracy and disunity among workers, negative attitude of employer and unnecessary politicisation hampered trade union growth in Bangladesh. This book made an attempt to analyse the historical context as well as the plight of the industrial workers and trade unions and their impact on the overall productivity of the workers in Bangladesh.
Providing elementary education to all children means abolishing child labour completely, if even one percent of children are not getting elementary education it means one percent child is labourer and only achieving hundred percent literacy does not mean abolishing hundred percent child labour. This book emhasis the need of education and hihg light the inner voice of every child. Govt efforts to abolish child labour with reference to educational policies evaluated critically. The recommendations of various education committees and commissions have discussed comprehensevly. Government constitutiona provisions and laws regarding elimination of child labour has also been covered and some court's verdict and its implications have also been discussed.This book is very helpful for academics, educationist,policy makers,educational administrators, NGOs and all those who are concerned with the future of a child. This book will motivate all those child labourer who want to study and do something remarkable in his or her life. Some important and useful suggesstions are given in the last chapter. This book will be useful for the welfare of human being.
The problem of Child Rights has emerged as one of the most vibrant issues for discussion in this new millennium. This era of liberalization and globalization has not checked the violation of even basic human rights of children. Millions of children have no access to education, work for long hours in various types of hazardous and non-hazardous occupation for survival, forced to become child soldiers and are subjected to problems like sexual abuse, violence, trafficking.They are deprived of healthy nutritious diet and right to play. Enacting of legislation and policies has so far proved insufficient. Consequently, in order to understand various aspects of child rights and to ascertain loop holes in the existing laws and policies. Education especially the primary education through adoption of Common School System, the empowerment of woman and poor population with the involvement of NGOs, Corporate, Civil Society and the State are the few of pivotal recommendation of this book.
Child labour tends to destroy children who constitute the potential work force and responsible leaders in the future for national development. Even though child labour has been with humanity for many centuries, it has attracted global attention over the past three decades. Gold is an important natural resource that is used in various ways to satisfy human needs. Its extraction is cumbersome and hazardous and therefore, should be the preserve of adults. However, children are engaged in small-scale gold mining in Ghana, thereby exposing them to the dangers which have the potential to destroy their future. This book examines the causes and effects of small-scale gold mining in Prestea township in Ghana. The main causes of child labour from our empirical study include poverty, irresponsible parenthood and inadequate access to education. The book therefore, calls for a collaborative strategy efforts by all stakeholders towards eliminating child labour in small-scale mining.
India has the distinction of employing the large number of working children in the world. The problem of child labour not only persists but also perpetuates in the unorganized sector /industries in India. Therefore ILO and government of India have recognized this problem as a harsh reality. To them it is neither possible nor feasible to stop the menace altogethe under the existing socio-economic conditions. Millions of children across the country are missing the joys of child hood as poverty, hunger; deprivation and unemployment of their parents force them into adult roles. The book is the study of the lives of these little ones whose little hands and nimble fingers are constantly engaged in carpet weaving industry of Kashmir. To give comprehensive view about the problem of working children an effort has been made here to elicit opinion of parents and employers also. The book will be useful not only those who are interested in the study and understanding of child labour, but also may be helpful to research scholars, academicians, social workers and others interested in studying the growing problem of child labour.
Children from poor families in Pakistan, like in many of developing countries, tend to work at early age, and typically have lowest educational level and suffer other social disadvantages. Child labour is usually linked with low human capital investment, poor education and health, and future poverty incidence. Low rates of productivity growth further contribute to the intergenerational poverty trap and hamper economic growth. This persistent problem means a loss of future human resource development of country and the denial of children’s birth right to education and recreation. There is a desperate need to find out effective tools for re-integration of children especially who are trapped in Worst Form of Child Labour, which may be helpful for reduction of child labour and eventually may eliminate this problem under the prevailing socio-economic conditions of the country. This research will be helpful as a useful reference in efforts to find out effective counterfactuals for eradication of WFCL in Pakistan.
The problem of child labour has become an issue of great concern in recent times all over the world. The alarming growth of child labour, particularly in developing countries, has attracted the attention of governments, national and international social organizations and social scientists. The exploding population, industrialization and increasing urbanization have aggravated the problem of child labour. In the preindustrial era also, children were engaged to work in agricultural and trade occupations, cottage industries and in artisan and craftsmen operations. The book is foucssed on poverty, labour, unemployment, polices and programmes of child labour, problems and prospect of labour, summery and conclussions in present status in Rayalaseema ragion of Andhra Pradesh.
This book examines in a comparative manner the principles and rules relating to child labour under the Nigerian Laws. It is also an analytical discourse on their enforceability. It is a fact that many children are victims of child labour in Nigeria. Therefore, this book will study the causes of child labour in the nation and will also examine applicable laws on child labour under the Shariah, Civil and Customary laws to determine deterrent punishment for child exploiters. The premise of this work is to determine how the Shariah can assist in solving the problem of child labour. It also examines how biological parents can play significant roles in solving the multi-faceted child labour problems across the nation. The research is conducted employing qualitative and quantitative methods using the available materials gathered from the library and the Internet. Materials that are obtained include the primary sources like legislation, the Qur''an and Hadith, and textbooks by all the respected schools of Islamic law. This research hopes to provide significant suggestions to eradicate child labour completely from Nigeria in the interests of children, the family, and the nation in general.
This study focused on the impact of child labour on children’s welfare in tobacco growing areas in Uganda. The child labourers’ health, education and social development has been tremendously affected thereby affecting their optimal developmental background as children, which has in turn denied them the opportunity to prepare and equip themselves academically, socially, and emotionally for the future. Even the existing policies and laws that protect child labour in Uganda have not been applied in reality in that they inadequately address child rights issues which deny them the opportunity to live as children and have not afforded them equal access to opportunities as compared to other sectors in Uganda. If government sensitised society to the laws and policies related to child labour and set up rules and regulations to guide the implementation of these laws and policies, it is certain that children would not fall victims of child labour. Unless a concerted effort is made by stakeholders to address this problem, especially its root causes such as poverty and food insecurity, the goal to eliminate child labour will be impossible to achieve.
The research work is based on a specific-factor general equilibrium framework to study the effectiveness of different trade and non-trade policies on child labour incidence and their impacts on national welfare, trade balance. Chapter 2 of the study reviews the literature on child labour . In chapter 3 of the dissertation, we have built a two sector general equilibrium model to investigate the effect of two alternative trade restrictive policies on child labour market. In chapter 4, we have extended the model into a three sector general equilibrium framework and have investigated the effect of both trade and non-trade policies. Non-trade policy is captured in terms of economic expansion. In chapter 5, we have considered a competitive general equilibrium model of a small open, less developed economy suffering from both (i) adult unemployment and (ii) child labour problem. We have tried to investigate the effects of imposition of three alternative trade restrictive policies. In chapter 6 our objective has been to examine the role of education subsidy in curtailing the incidence of child labour supply. In chapter 7, we summarise the main conclusions of our study.
Child malnutrition is an emerging problem to attain many of the millennium development goals including extreme poverty and hungry, primary education, and child mortality. Children of developing countries like Bangladesh are more vulnerable from malnutrition. Though Bangladesh is on the track to meet the target of MDGs, the level of child malnutrition is still very high, a great concern for achieving the target within the time. In this regard it is indispensable to follow the status of malnutrition as well as identify its determinants. The study aims to explore the levels, trends and predictors of malnutrition for the under five Bangladeshi children in terms of three forms - stunting, wasting and underweight utilizing the nationwide data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. The UNICEF modified conceptual framework is followed to consider basic, underlying, immediate and temporal causes. Both binary and ordinal logistic regression techniques are utilized to identify the determinants of child malnutrition. Based on the findings, some recommendations are suggested for eliminating nutrition vulnerability of Bangladeshi children.
Infant and child are actually asset of a nation. For this, the study of infant and child mortality is important not only in Bangladesh but also in this globe. In this study, factors associated with infant and child mortality are identified by using some sophisticated statistical techniques. Hope this research would help to social scientists, demographers, academicians, researchers as well as physician for reducing infant and child mortality in the developing countries like Bangladesh as well as in the world.
In South-Eastern Asian countries, the remarkable decrease in fertility is one of significant demographic phenomenon of the last decades. Still, child labour is sees as a crucial, pressing issue that pervades the developing world. In this thesis I study the link between the demographic transition - fertility and mortality decline that took place in Thailand recently and the changing pattern of work for school-aged children. After a description of the situation and a review of the literature, I focus on an empirical analysis of panel data on the Nang Rong district. Results are in line with the prediction that fertility decline along with economic development has a positive influence on parental choices about the economic activity of their offspring.
The study into Child Labour in Solid Waste Scavenging was carried out in Kawempe Zone, Kampala City Council (KCC). It used various methods to collect the data and these included literature review of what others have written on the subject, face to face interviews with the 26 (11 girls and 15 boys) child solid waste scavengers (CSWS), 3 focus group discussions with adults at 3 different locations in Kawempe Zone, focus group discussions with the CSWS, observation of the CSWS at work at Mpererwe landfill, solid waste skips, observation visits to Mulago Hospital, key informant interviews. The key findings were: several factors that push children into solid waste scavenging that ranged from inadequate solid waste management by KCC that made recyclable materials readily available and accessible; economic factors, curiosity and availability of ready market for the salvaged items. The work exposes the CSWS to a lot of risks such as health, loss of educational opportunities and social stigma. This kind of work is considered as one of the worst forms of child labour in part due to scavenging items from mixed MSW with healthcare, industrial and institutional waste.
The Government of Kenya has provided Free Primary Education and increased resource allocation to enhance its delivery. The trend in school enrollment has been impressive but with concerns regarding retention and attendance. Although the national data on primary school completion indicated higher number of boys than girls in the year 2010, the opposite was recorded in Nakuru Municipality. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of child labour and family background on school attendance among boys in public primary schools in Western Division of Nakuru municipality in Kenya. The study was carried out amongst the boys in Standard V to VIII and findings revealed positive correlation between child labour and parental background with school attendance of the boys. Following these findings the study made recommendations to all relevant stakeholders in education to consider developing and implementing strategies aimed at managing and addressing the challenges of boys’ school attendance. The findings of this study may provide essential information to schools, parents and other stakeholders in the education sector to enable them find ways of retaining boys in school.