Andragogy is one of the dominant theories of adult education. One of the key principles of andragogy is that as children and adults differ from each other in many respects, the learning and teaching processes should also be different for both the groups. Research shows that andragogical approach is more appropriate and more effective than the pedagogical approach for teaching adult learners. This study investigated tertiary learners’ and teachers’ beliefs and views about the use of andragogical approach, and particularly teachers’ practices and the extent to which these are congruent with andragogical process principles and students' perceptions about English language teaching and learning at the undergraduate level in Bangladesh context. The study reveals that though teachers use andragogy in their classes, they do many things, such as they decide materials and activities, set learning objectives and evaluate acquired learning for learners, which are contrary to andragogical process principles. The study emphasizes the need for adopting andragogical approach to teaching English to the adult learners.
The authors aim to answer the following 10 questions: * What is Andragogy? * What is the difference between andragogy and pedagogy? * What is adult education? * In what way do the principle self-learning features manifest themselves? * Who is an andragogue? * How did adult learning and andragogue activities develop throughout history? * How does the multifunctional nature of andragogues' activities manifest itself? * What are the guidelines for organising adult education? * What has to be considered by an andragogue seeking efficient adult learning? * How did the switch from the idea of continuing learning to implementation of the concept of life-long learning occur?
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In Iranian EFL contexts, widely published materials are not used officially in public schools rather, they are utilized informally in language institutions and private colleges. The insufficiency and shortage of the pedagogical values of school textbooks have been proved by many researches. However, the universally published textbooks which are broadly utilized in informal contexts in our country have not gone under a close scrutiny yet. This study intends to evaluate American Headway series, one of the textbooks taught in over 140 countries throughout the world including Iran. The study is theoretically based on Littlejohn’s detailed framework (1998). The framework is one of the more objective and less impressionistic frameworks which seeks to evaluate materials as they are regardless of how they are utilized in ELT classrooms.
This work in the form of a book is a critical analysis of English Language Teaching in the High Schools of Gujarat through scenario writing. The author has presented an authentic analysis the various approaches, methods and techniques used by the teachers of English as he himself observed and noted the day-to-day classroom work of more than 50 teachers objectively. Thus the book provides a realistic picture of English Language Teaching as envisioned and desired by the curriculum and textbook framers and on the other hand as it is being actually practiced by the teachers at the grass root level. The book may prove an authentic resource to all the educationists as well as stake holders of ELT in Gujarat and India providing a clue to understand and solve the issues regarding ELT as second language in the High Schools of Gujarat.
ELT in Saudi Arabia: A Study of Learners' Needs Analysis offers insights into the Saudi under graduate learners’ needs to learn English. The book covers the following areas: 1.Difficulties or problems in the four basic language skills of English in students from different levels; 2.The learners’ needs to acquire the knowledge of English; 3.The students’ motivations and attitudes towards English language learning in order to formulate effective strategies targeted at different proficiency levels; 4.The students’ language learning experiences and their potential language skills that can be explored and promoted by teachers and peers. Through this small scale study, an effort has been made to help the policy makers,curriculum designers and language teaching professionals in imparting effective ELT program at the undergraduate level in Saudi Arabia.
Information & Communication Technology (ICT) in English Language Teaching (ELT) has been acknowledged as one of the driving forces in shaping the new generation of young learners. Pioneering mobile devices will emerge and take on a great role in the way students learn. It is estimated that smart phones will suit more like computers and vice-versa. Educators from all over the world foresee a future in which digital books, hybrid mobile computers and touch-screen writing tablets will replace the text-book, chalk and blackboard, etc. It will radically shift the prospect of ICT in ELT. This volume contains considerable researches drawn from worldwide. This is estimated that the book will optimistically gratify the prospects and perspective of the Information & Communication Technology in ELT.
This book Strategy research in ELT: the benefits for the teacher is the result of struggling with issues of language learning and teaching. In my school and university experience, most of the foreign language instruction and teaching was in the grammar-translation mode, consisting of memorized word lists and fill-in the gaps exercises and no real interaction in the language. The communication and speaking skills were rarely practiced. Those teachers who did care about communication knew little or nothing about how to help their students to communicate and use the language in both written and spoken form. By the time I became a language teacher, R. Oxford (1990) and A. D. Cohen (1998) brought language learning strategies on stage. Based on the idea of learner self-direction, LLS are beginning to command attention around language classrooms in all levels. Having this in mind, this study aims to explore language learning strategy research in the Serbian university classroom in addition to investigating the students’ perception of the frequency usage of these strategies. The aim is also to examine what learning strategies students mostly use in this teaching context.
Despite the importance of academic writing in higher education, proper attention has not been drawn to English language teaching (ELT) in China; as a result, Chinese students who learn English as a foreign language (EFL) generally have difficulty in constructing successful academic texts. While a growing number of Chinese students choose to pursue their higher education in Western countries, their incompetence in academic writing poses problems for their educational performance and academic attainments. This qualitative research aims to explore the causal factors by analyzing Chinese ELT textbook officially assigned for senior high education in an effort to examine how the textbook has helped English learners to develop their academic writing skills. The result revealed that the textbook had contributed very little to developing learners’ academic writing ability and consequently failed to guide students in their development of certain effective strategies; hence, the research suggests that academic writing teaching should be added to the curriculum and the author argues that the textbook in question should be upgraded.
This is a textbook on English Language Teaching Methodology which was a task-based, communicative approach to deal with concepts and theories.Deductive learning is essential. First, the teacher gives rules explicitly then the rules are reinforced with examples and exercises. Translation is the way to learn the language. Oral communication is not primarily important. Written language is superior to spoken language. Students also learn the structure of their own native language. Those who study a foreign language become more cultured and intellectual. It is obvious that the learning outcome of an English classroom can be bettered when the teacher employs the aid of many an ELT method of evaluating his/her classroom experiences. Of these methods, observation has been given much prominence in the recent years since it continues to happen not only during the limited hours of actual language teaching but also starts before the lesson in the classroom and even after class. It is common knowledge that in one way or the other almost all teachers engage themselves in observation though it is not well-orchestrated.
English language learning has become very important because of the global status of English. People all over the world are learning this language. In a quest to achieve efficient language learning, the history of ELT saw many methods being used in English language learning contexts. Communicative Language Teaching method (CLT), being regarded as a modern and effective method of language teaching, has been implemented in many ESL/EFL teaching contexts. However, whereas the method has been successful in some contexts,the implementation of CLT has not been without problems in many Asian countries as CLT has been in clash with local cultures of learning. Pakistan is still following a traditional ELT approach.There is a need to modernize ELT in Pakistan, and one aspect of modernization is to adopt a current ELT approach. This research is an effort in the direction. The aim is to discover the learning needs of Pakistani state boarding schools students to assess the implementation of CLT in these schools at secondary level. It will also help in ascertaining if CLT is suitable for the Pakistani boarding schools' ELT context.
It is generally observed that the textbooks employed in the classrooms play a crucial role in the process of teaching and learning a second/foreign language. As a result, a number of studies have been carried out to evaluate English Language Teaching (ELT) materials. Trying to contribute to this growing body of literature, the present study was conducted to evaluate the eight most popular global textbooks which are taught in Iranian ELT institutes in terms of their task types according to Nunan’s (1999) classification of the tasks.
The book titled 'ELT and Development of Communicative Abilities of University Students in Pakistan' is a first attempt of its kind to look at the problems faced by the English language Learners in Pakistan. Based on contemporary research and the perception data collected from students, the book presents a very comprehensive program to improve the English language efficiency of the undergraduate students in Pakistan particularly in the province of Sindh. The main focus of the book is that by following the communicative approach to language learning( through activities) the the students can very easily overcome their deficiency and can be fluent in speaking and writing and can be effective readers and careful listeners of the target language- English.
By increasing the worldwide demand for learning English as a foreign language, the need for highly qualified English teachers has been dramatically heightened. Thus, educational practitioners have been deliberately attempting to raise teacher professionalism and quality. Attempts to improve the highly qualified teachers will never succeed unless teachers are taken into account, as a whole person with their all cognitive and affective domains. Among various individual characteristics, teachers' efficacy of classroom management due to its significant role in teacher development and academic achievement has aroused much more interest. In this Book, EFL teachers' classroom management accompanying with the two influential factors on this single skill was investigated in detail.
English in this knowledge era is a language of opportunity, the currency of the future. There is understandably an all round demand for English and effective English teachers. A novice peering through ELT journals and textbooks is often baffled by the many technical terms and specialist jargons. There is no one book that can acquaint them with the major terms and issues connected with language learning. This Glossary responds to the needs of such learners, initiating them to the basics and providing them a sound grasp of the essentials the profession has come up with. A doctrinaire approach to the terms and concepts is not intended nor does the book include all nuances, every view, development and reaction. This is primarily a reference book for every learner, teacher and researcher in ELT. Related terms are clubbed together thematically so the reader can be made aware and widen his/her understanding of the developments in the field.
TEACHING YOUNG LEARNERS TO THINK offers 80 lessons with photocopiable worksheets devised to develop key thinking and language skills in young learners. A selection of activities, organised in categories from basic to higher-order thinking skills, engage young learners in meaningful use of language while enhancing cognitive abilities through real-life thinking tasks. All tasks carefully match both the cognitive and language level of the students and will create hours of fun and motivation for both teachers and learners. Ideal for use in ELT classes, bilingual programmes and CLIL-based curricula.
Communication is primary to human existence and while people acquire their mother tongue naturally, the acquisition of a second language presents a significantly greater challenge, one that cannot be successfully completed without applying appropriate approaches, methods, strategies and techniques. After centuries of development in ELT, we now find ourselves in a post-method period and in the plenitude of approaches available to us, it is greatly important to choose those that suit the learner best. This book presents an overview of various methods and approaches, paying special attention to communicative language teaching and communicative competence. However, the main body of the book analyses pair work in ELT from various perspectives, suggesting its pros and cons and relating it to the principles of CLT. The theoretical part of the book sets foundations to the second part, which details a field research carried out in a selected primary school. The book should be particularly useful to students of pedagogy and didactics, as well as teachers of primary and seconary schools, who seek practical advice on how to enhance their professional performance.
This book is an inquiry into teachers’ belief of inter/cultural teaching (IC) in the Chinese English language teaching (ELT) context in which teachers’ understanding is fundamental to any pedagogical practice or reform. Through a questionnaire survey among Chinese English teachers, the author tends to find out the status quo of teachers’ perception on various aspects of IC-oriented ELT context in China, including teacher’s perspective of the objectives of language and culture teaching; teacher’s understanding of ‘culture’; the cultural topics they favored to teach in the classroom; the techniques they use to teach culture; time allocation to cultural teaching and finally their attitudes towards intercultural communicative competence . The results suggest that the Chinese English teachers’ conceptualization of ICC and its relevance to ELT is vague in spite of their perceived goal and desire to develop students’ ICC. Such results indicate the significance of intercultural teacher education and interculturalization of ELT in the Chinese context.